Omer Zaheer MeerCPEC is strategically very important for China as it imports 60pc of its oil from the Gulf of which 80pc is transported by ships travelling over 16,000 kilometers in approximately three months on average through Strait of Malacca to Eastern China.
This existing route is not only longer but is ridden with regular attacks by pirates, bad weather and political rivals under American and Indian influence.
So the strategic benefits to China can be categorised in four major areas: a) China is heavily dependent upon the oil from Gulf for its energy needs.
China will reduce the transportation distance from 16,000 km to just 5,000 km resulting in huge economic savings and quicker business all around the year sans the threat of blockade by political rivals.
b) China will gain access to the untapped markets of the energy rich Central Asian states and Afghanistan which are termed as the next big thing and “Gulf replacement” for coming century.
With this early access, developed secure routes and trade ties China cannot only secure its energy needs for the next century but place itself as the world leader re energy security by having taps on the future energy sources, a place currently held by the USA.
c) China will be able to spread its economic development benefits to its lesser developed western areas including the troubled Muslim-majority region of Xinjiang.
Furthermore with enhanced security co-operation with Pakistan and economic developmental gains, China hopes to curb its troubles in its underbelly.
d) Last but not the least, CPEC will not only provide China with an opening to the world from its western side but also ensure that by having a potential naval presence at Gwadar, not only does it hold an additional sea-port but has the capability to blockade the oil supplies to any future adversaries.
Any attempts to encircle China such as those currently pursued by USA would become futile in such a scenario.
The benefits to Pakistan are numerous too.
Some of the major ones are as below:> Uplift and development of badly needed transportation, technical and energy infrastructure.
> Economic development through industrial and commercial zones setup along the CPEC.
> Potential to earn billions of dollar in transit fees, cargo handling and transportation charges.
> Becoming economic connectivity hub for the entire region and beyond.
> Security benefits of Gwadar port as outlined above.
> With enhanced security ties with China and the economic developmental benefits, Pakistan also expects of stemming out the terror in lesser developed areas of Balochistan and KPK.
Considering all the significant benefits and strategic potential of the CPEC it was unfortunate that it became controversial.
The controversy is two-pronged.
There are those who genuinely felt that the economic benefits of the CPEC were moved away from their provinces to Punjab, being the political constituency of the incumbent Government.
However, there are also efforts led by India to disrupt the CPEC as is evident by the recently created desk at RAW with initial allocation of $3 billion for this purpose.
Furthermore by signing accord to develop Chahbahar port with Iran, India has aligned Iranian interests with itself too.
Moreover UAE’s interests also clash with Pakistan’s as the success of CPEC will render Dubai port an invalid.
Furthermore, the strategic great game means that USA would rather not have it to see CPEC successful.
None of the external efforts would have been and can be successful without some genuine internal dissent though.
Unfortunately the lack of transparency and undue secrecy around the CPEC allowed the propaganda as well as the genuine concerns to grow.
Moreover the eastern route was the most talked about during the Chinese President’s visit to Pakistan, further raising concerns of depriving smaller provinces of their due.
Absence of KPK, Sindh and Balochistan CM’s while CM Punjab was in attendance didn’t help the situation either.
Therefore, KPK Assembly passed a resolution demanding the original route to be retained while Balochistan Assembly’s resolution demanded clarification on CPEC benefits to provinces from the federation.
ANP then convened an “all parties’ conference” pressing the controversy and concerns forward.
Though late but some positive steps were taken.
A meeting of the leaders of all parliamentary parties was convened to enlighten them on CPEC but the “Safora Goth” tragedy overshadowed the effort.
However, the meeting didn’t address concerns with regard to greater transparency as little is revealed regarding the technical and financial parameters of the CPEC projects.
The funding sources were also clouded in mystery but it now seems that most of the “investment” is in the form of soft loans with Chinese firms to execute several projects.
Federal Minister for Planning and Development Ahsan Iqbal has claimed that all routes of CPEC are being worked at simultaneously and the western route will be the first one operational.
Similarly he has claimed that Sindh and Balochistan will be the biggest beneficiaries of power generation under CPEC with 36pc and 26pc shares respectively.
The government should use media to educate masses about the above claims as well as share why the alternate routes were developed.
Was it to ensure connectivity across the country with developed areas, out of Chinese concerns for safety of passage in case of trouble on the route via Balochistan (as mentioned by some Chinese scholars in their write-ups in international media), to cater for the huge trade volume expected or some other reasons? Also more transparency such as clarifying that why the current PSDP contains allocations under CPEC only for the eastern route and not the others will help dispel the concerns and negative propaganda.
CPEC is a game changer for Pakistan and the Government has the responsibility to ensure its successful completion.
Pakistan cannot bear the potential loss and the dire consequences of CPEC turning into another “Kalabagh Dam”.
Concluded.