Pakistan makes small input to total global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, less than 1 percent but it is among the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Pakistan has very low technical and financial capacity to overcome its adverse impact. The emission in the country from refineries, industries, ad thermal power plants are causing heart diseases, lung disorder and cancer.

Coastal areas bordering the Arabian Sea in the south of Pakistan will be at greatest risk due to increased flooding from the sea and in some cases rivers. In Himalayas, the glacier melt is projected to increase flooding will affect water resources within the next two to three decades. This will be follow by decreased river flows overtimes as glaciers recede. Availability of fresh water is also predictable to lessen which will lead to biodiversity loss and reduce of availability of fresh water for the population. Being a mainly agriculture economy, climate change is estimate to decrease crop yield in Pakistan, which in turn will effect livelihood and food production.

Combining the decreased yield with the current rapid growth and urbanization in the country, the danger of hunger and food security will remain high.

Due to droughts and floods, endemic mortality and morbidity because of diseases are predictable to high. Cholera will also aggravate due to increase in costal water temperatures. The change in climate will also exacerbate the existing social inequalities of resource use and intensify social factors leading to displacement, conflicts, instability of people and changes in migration pattern.