In October, the sides agreed on ceasefires three times but failed to prevent the escalations, accusing each other of breaking the accords.

A new round of hostilities erupted in Nagorno-Karabakh on 27 September, with Baku subsequently launching a partial mobilisation and announcing a "counter-offensive", while Yerevan launched a full mobilisation to defend the breakaway republic.

The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict flared up in the late 1980s, with the predominantly Armenian-populated autonomy proclaiming independence from Azerbaijan in 1991. As a result, Baku and Yerevan waged a full-scale war for the area between 1992 and 1994 that claimed the lives of around 40,000 troops and civilians from both sides.

A ceasefire was signed in 1994, and the conflict remained frozen, while the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic still continues to be an unrecognised state.