“The finest steel has to go through the hottest fire.”

–Richard M Nixon – 1967

England’s economic capital in 1666 was London, which at that time had a population of 500,000. Opposing London was Bristol, with the population of 30,000. The structural design of the city did not differ much for the Middle Ages. The city was poorly constructed, with narrow unclean streets and houses that were about 4 stories in their stature. The houses were extremely close together, creating a congested environment. The upper stories overshadowed the lower ones. The city was completely occupied with wooden, old structures, cramped up together with the settlement of a large population and hence, even a simple fire could be considered extremely threatening and hazardous.

England experienced one of the most well-known incidents that occurred in the September of 1666. Being the second catastrophe the city tackled with, The Great Plague being the first, the city was struck with chaos and fear once again that led to the population fleeing the city. This time not due to a widespread disease but as a result of a human accident.

Four fifth of the city was demolished due to the fire but the death rate was lower compared to the Great Plague. The aftermath of the fire brought out positive results alongside the negative ones. The destruction of the city meant that the city now had to be reconstructed. This was a chance for a new start for the city, hence began the re-planning of the architecture and better building material for the buildings, instead of wood the buildings would be made with fire resistant stone. About 49 churches were reconstructed along with St Paul’s Cathedral which was destroyed by the fire. The aftereffects of the Plague were completely removed as the rats that had plague infected fleas were burned in the fire.