“To be protected from violence by the nation-state is to be exposed to the violence wielded by the nation-state, so to rely on the nation-state for protection from violence is precisely to exchange one potential violence for another.”

— Judith Butler

 Many historians consider the Thirty Years’ War as one of the most destructive wars ever fought on European soil. However, the Treaty of Westphalia, signed on 24th October 1648, marked the end of one of the bloodiest conflicts in Europe. The instrumental accord was the Treaty of Munster, in a series of different treaties that collectively make the Treaty of Westphalia.

The treaty had left profound impacts in the coming times. It changed not only the political landscape of the continent. It also changed the intellectual understanding of government and rulers. The treaty gave the Swiss independence of Austria and the Netherlands independence of Spain. The German principalities secured their autonomy. Sweden gained territory, and a payment in cash, Brandenburg and Bavaria made gains too, and France acquired most of Alsace-Lorraine. Throughout Europe, Westphalia signalled the beginning of state sovereignty that each of these kings would be the sole sovereign in his domain.

Today, the contradictions inherent to the idea of the nation-state have undermined the sanctity of it. Many countries are becoming more and more authoritarian due to sticking to the teachings of nation-states as a political concept. Therefore, a new political thought is needed to solve the crisis.