LAHORE - Terrorism and deliberate violence created long-lasting mental effects than natural disasters or accidents, said Dr Farrell. He was addressing a workshop at University of Health Sciences (UHS) organised with the collaboration of University of Birmingham, UK. Dr Derek P Farrell, an eye movement de-sensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) Europe approved trainer and trauma therapist, facilitated the workshop. At the end of a three-day workshop here on Thursday, Dr Rashid Qayyum President EMDR Pakistan, said that health professionals from Karachi, Abbotabad and Lahore would participate in the conference. He said that a large number of people exposed to acts of terrorism might develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Terrorism challenges the natural need of human to see the world as predictable, orderly, and controllable. The consequences for both individuals and the community are prolonged, and survivors often feel that injustice has been done to them. This can lead to anger, frustration, helplessness, fear, and a desire for revenge, he explained, adding that latest psychotherapy technique of EMDR had proved very effective in the treatment of such trauma-related disorders. Dr Farrell said that EMDR was a form of psychotherapy that was developed to resolve symptoms resulting from disturbing and unresolved life experience. It used a structured approach to address past, present, and future aspects of disturbing memories, he added. He further said that the approach was first developed in 1987 to resolve the trauma-related disorders resulting from exposure to a traumatic or distressing event such as earthquake, child abuse, military combat or suicide attacks. Dr Farrell said that EMDR integrated elements of imaginal exposure, cognitive therapy, psychodynamic and somatic therapies. It also used the unique element of bilateral stimulation, such as moving eyes back and forth. Addressing the participants of the workshop, Dr Farrell said that training of Pakistani mental health workers in EMDR technique started after the earthquake of October 8, 2005. It is basically a transfer of technology to Pakistan because our own experience is that the experiential therapies like EMDR are more effective in Pakistan than other psychological therapies that involve talking, he maintained adding that the training was being imparted free of cost whereas in the West it was very expensive. President EMDR Pakistan, Dr Rashid Qayyum said that about 100 mental health workers and 6 facilitators had so far been trained whereas 6 more were under training in EMDR technique through a series of workshops held at Abbotabad, Rawalpindi, Karachi and Lahore. He added that with an increase in geo-political crises, terrorism and increasing threat of natural disasters, due to global environment changes, psychological trauma services in Pakistan needed to follow a consorted and well laid down plan if they want to address the ground realities. UHS Vice Chancellor Prof MH Mubbashar said that disasters, whether natural or man-made, had become the most challenging issue of the 21st century. Pakistan is especially vulnerable to the fallouts of psychological trauma, because of the current and emerging politics and socio-economic conditions, he maintained. He also said that EMDR technique could be used very effectively for treating children.