KARACHI - Pakistani Jewellery Industry must equip itself with the latest techniques and trends being used in gold refining and assaying worldwide to make its products competitive and attractive for foreign markets. These views were expressed during the seminar "Latest Trends in Assaying and Refining" organised by Pakistan Gems and Jewellery Development Company (PGJDC) at its Gems and Jewellery Training and Manufacturing Centre (GJTMC) in Saddar, Karachi on Monday. Abdul Sattar, Chief Executive, Roop Nikhar and precious metals refining consultant was the keynote speaker. He informed that currently several methods of refining gold are being used in the industry, but two methods are most commonly used in our trade, which are inquartations and parting and aqua regia refining process. He described both the process in detail to the audience belonging to Gems and Jewellery Industry of Pakistan. He also discussed the process of assaying and said that assaying is an accurate determination of an element in a given sample. In the case of jewellery, assaying is an accurate determination of the precious metal content in an alloy. There are three main methods of assaying the jewellery samples: first is Cupellation (used for gold determination), second Titration (used for silver determination) and third is inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. He informed the audience that hallmarking is used to indicate the fineness (purity) of jewellery or ornamental article made of platinum, gold or silver. The hallmarks are small markings stamped on gold, silver and platinum articles. He said that a hallmark means that the article has been independently tested and guarantees that it conforms to all legal standards of purity (fineness). These tests are carried out only by an assay office. CEO PGJDC, Fawad H Khan said that this seminar of gold refining and assaying is the part of PGJDC's initiative to bring the Hallmarking law in Pakistan and such awareness-creating seminars for gems and jewellery industry are necessary to change the industry's mindset. He said that by adapting the latest trends and techniques being used by jewellery industry worldwide, Pakistani gems and jewellery industry can also improve its business processes and can compete in international markets in a better way.