Palaeochannel in Thar Desert is the excellent and great source of groundwater and can be effectively used for groundwater exploration to manage with the water scarcity in the Thar Desert. About six thousand years ago green Thar Desert, is now dry and under water stress due to numerous droughts andless rainfall. The history shows that the Hakra River (Palaeochannel), main tributary of Saraswati River (India), dried out about 6000-4000 BC, which once flowed through alluvial planes stretching parallel to the existing Indus River (Pakistan) at present buried under sand cushion of the Thar Desert due to earthquake, thickness of dunes about ranges between 100 and 150 meters. It started from Himalayan Range passed through the Indian territory as Ghaggar River and subsequently entered the existing Nara valley planes.
Thar Desert is the largest among all the four deserts of Pakistan, it extending eastwards from irrigated plains on the left bank of River Indus towards the Indian states of Rajhistan and Gujrat. The Desert covering the districts of Tharparkar, Umerkot, Sukkur, Khairpur and Ghotki, Thar Desert is one of the most populated desert in world. Most of the population is settled in towns and villages, however a significant number of people lives deep inside the Thardesert and lives a nomadic life style and depends mostly on rain and livestock for their livelihoods.
Many people have diverse thoughts about the courses of historical Hakra River. In the last decades with the development in Geographical information system and remote sensing techniques, palaeochannels can be map systematically. Further satellite imagery of palaeochannels on the Thar Desert could be confirmed through lithological and archeological signs, water quality monitoring, isotopic analysis and radiocarbon dating.
In Thar desert, maximum water has evaporated and deep percolated from the surface due to sandcover and hot climate.In the view this perspective, the contribution of historical Hakra River to relatively profound groundwater resources needs to be studied scientifically. Nevertheless exploration of deep groundwater resources is very costly, to alleviate water shortage these so-far unexplored resources want courtesy. Ground water resource is of extreme importance to mankind for healthy growth of the population and livestock assets in Great Thar Desert.
IMRAN AZIZ TUNIO,
Hyderabad, February 11.