The tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 10) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was held in Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, from October 18 to 29, 2010. The meeting drew the participation of more than 13,000 people from the Parties to the Convention, relevant international organisations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and other institutions. H.E. Mr Ryu Matsumoto, Japans Minister of the Environment, served as the President of the conference. On October 27, H.E. Mr Naoto Kan, Prime Minister of Japan, attended the High-Level Segment of COP 10 that the Government of Japan hosted concurrently from October 27 to 29, 2010. During the meeting, Prime Minister Kan announced the Life in Harmony Initiative ($2 billion) to support the efforts being made by the developing countries for biological diversity conservation. Under the initiative, Minister Matsumoto announced the Japan Biodiversity Fund (one billion yen, approximately $12 million) to support the compilation of national strategies on biological diversity, and assistance (one billion yen, approximately $12 million) to the developing countries for capacity building regarding Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS) related to genetic resources. Furthermore, H.E. Mr Yutaka Banno, State Secretary for Foreign Affairs of Japan, announced specific assistance measures concerning genetic resources and forest conservation. COP 10 adopted the Nagoya Protocol on ABS and the new strategic plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity (the Aichi Target) for 2011 onward. In addition, the fifth meeting of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (COP-MOPS), held prior to COP 10, adopted the Nagoya-Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress for Damages Resulting from Living Modified Organisms. Japan, as the President of the COP 10 and COP-MOPS meetings, welcomes these outcomes. For the heavily debated Nagoya Protocol, Japan contributed to building consensus among the parties toward the agreement by presenting a balanced draft Presidents text, which reflected the interests of all the parties at the meeting. Going forward, Japan will contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and pro-actively support the efforts of developing countries to achieve the Aichi Target and implement the Nagoya Protocol by utilising its knowledge and technology, taking into account the needs of developing countries. The Embassy of Japan