MUNICH, Germany, (Reuters/AFP) - Nato said on Saturday a new Russian military doctrine identifying Nato expansion as a threat did not reflect the real world and undermined efforts to improve ties between the Western military alliance and Moscow. Russia was angered by Nato expansion to include former Warsaw Pact states after the collapse of the Soviet Union and was particularly incensed by the alliances promise of eventual membership to Georgia and Ukraine, former Soviet republics Moscow still considers part of its sphere of influence. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev approved the new military doctrine on Friday. Nato Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen expressed surprise that Russia still considers the military alliance a major security threat just as their ties are improving. I was surprised to read that Russia considers Nato a main threat in its new doctrine. This does not reflect the real world, he said, according to his spokesman James Appathurai. Nato is not an enemy of Russia, the Nato Chief told Reuters in an interview on the sidelines of a security conference in Munich. It does not reflect realities and it is in clear contradiction with all our endeavours to improve the relationship between Nato and Russia. The doctrine identifies one of the main external threats of war as Natos expansion east to Russias borders, and sees US plans to create an anti-missile shield in Europe as a concern for national security. Rasmussen said Nato was keen to develop a strategic partnership with Russia and to expand cooperation in Afghanistan, where the two sides share security concerns. He said he would stress these issues in a meeting in Munich with Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov. I have urged Russia to step up their engagement in Afghanistan. I have presented proposals to the Russians when I visited Moscow in December as to how they could further their engagement, Rasmussen said. I think Russia and we share the same interests in success in Afghanistan. Russia has agreed to allow land transit of non-lethal Nato supplies to Afghanistan and pledged to do all it can to help the alliances troubled Afghan effort, short of sending troops. However on his December visit to Moscow, Rasmussen failed to get immediate firm pledges of additional assistance for Afghanistan, including expanded transit options, helicopters and more support for training Afghan security forces. During that trip Rasmussen rebuffed the Kremlins call for new defence arrangements in Europe, saying he saw no need for a new security treaty proposed by Russia. Medvedev published a draft post-Cold War security pact on November 29, saying it could replace Nato and other institutions and restrict the ability of any country to use force unilaterally. Nato countries have reacted sceptically, seeing the Russian plan as an attempt to divide the alliance and saying that the existing Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe is the right place to discuss security issues. Rasmussen inherited an extremely strained relationship with Russia when he took over at Nato from Jaap de Hoop Scheffer last year and has made improving ties with Moscow a priority, stressing shared global security worries. Nato froze ties with Moscow over Russias 2008 intervention in Georgia and has only gradually resumed formal contacts.