“Celerity is never more admired

than by the negligent”


Cleopatra, one of the most powerful woman in history whose rule brought Egypt nearly 22 years of stability and prosperity. She was last in the dynasty of a Macedonian Greek family of Ptolemy. Ptolemy actually served as a general under Alexander the Great during his occupation of Egypt.

She ruled jointly in Alexandria as co-regent with her brother to whom she was also married until he had her exiled. Egypt had long been a Roman client state and Cleopatra’s father incurred large debts to the republic.

After being defeated by Caesar in Rome’s civil war, the general Pompey sought refugee in Egypt but instead, was executed by Egyptians on the orders of Cleopatra’s brother. Caesar found the murder uncouth and demanded payment of Egypt’s debt. He could have annexed Egypt but Cleopatra convinced him to restore her to the throne as Caesar found her highly intelligent and an astute politician. Cleopatra was also well-educated in the world’s finest libraries and could speak various languages. She also managed the vast bureaucracy and curbed corruption by priests. When drought hit, she opened state granaries to the public and passed a tax amnesty. She is celebrated for her exotic splendour, romantic liaison and military alliances as the lover of Julius Caesar.

Caesar was so fascinated by the Egyptian culture that when he returned to Rome, he reformed the calendar, commissioned a census and made plans for a public library.