Pakistan’s economy largely depends upon agriculture sector and Livestock have a key role in it. At present, the contribution of Livestock to the agriculture sector is 60.5% and 11.2% to the total GDP of the Pakistan. Livestock is providing bread and butter and also have socio economicimpact on the life of people residing in rural areas of the country. This sector meets thedomestic demand of milk, meat and eggs of farmers. It also provides net source of foreign earnings. In Pakistan morethan 8.0 million rural families are involved in livestock related businesses, managing almost 2-3 buffaloes/cattle and 5-6 sheep/goats in a family, small dairy farms, educing 40% of their earning from Livestock.

Pakistan is designated the 4th leading milk producer in the world with the production of the value above the thirty two million tons per annum. Although Pakistan is on the 4th leading milk producing country in the world but livestock is the most neglected sector in the country. The peoples are mostly hesitant to adopt the livestock as a business on large scale due to low profitability. The milk produced per capita is very low and we are wasting our resources to meet the fodder demand of these animals on such a large scale.This low production is based on the fact that there are no criteria for culling and replacement at our dairy farms and field condition. In culling and replacement, heifers of the own farms are the most important that replace the older animals having low productive and reproductive potential. Heifers are considered as the future of a dairy farms but unfortunately this group of animals is the most neglected due to several reason.

Firstly,when the calf born they do not get proper attention because farmer is busy in routine  farm practices and attending the adult lactating animals and is not interested to pay his attention to young calves because they are not providing him profit at that time.

Secondly, calves do not get proper amount of milk during infantile period because farmer do not afford to give milk to young calves due to high price of milk in the market and pays more attention on selling milk to the people so called Dhodies to get money. New borncalf need more milk to grow in infantile period, calf become weak during this stage due to the shortage of milk being offered per day per calf.

Third, farmer’s pays less attention to take routine care of the calf and due to less immunity, calves do not cope up the harshness of environment, acquire diseases and died during infantile period. Some of the calves that survive this stagehave stunted growth, weak and enter next stage of life that is called pre pubertal period.

Fourth, at pre pubertal stage, calves faces the same situation of malnourishment, but at this time it is not the milk, its but the unavailability and poor quality of the fodder or the fodder offered is residual of adult animals of the farm. By facing theses type of problems the age of puberty prolongs in theses calves which ultimately reduce the productive and reproductive life of these animals. These young calves attain puberty in 3-4 years of age which affect the future of the dairy farm by giving small number of calves and less production of milk in life due to short productive and reproductive lifespan.

Fifth,owners believe that these young calves are lottery for the farm and think that by taking extra care of this group at farm most of their farm budget will be consumed in this activity that has no profit and assumed that it’s a waste of money.By adopting such approach a times comes when farmers have old lactating animals at farm that have low milk production and at the same time he has no replacement of animals at farm that is young and will improve its farm production.20-25 % female calf as replacement stock for sustained profitable dairy farming.

Sixth, owners mostly purchase new adult lactating animals from the local market or from the other farmers to overcome this issue at farm,these purchased animals have a high price and more risk of disease in transmission in farm from new animals that ultimately devastating their profit in the long run by low milk production and consumption of resources on treatment. Farms income generating capabilities become low and owners reaches a stage of bankrupt.

How this problem be solved? Farmer’s community must realize this know how they can change this belief. NGOs should focus this area to provide information and awareness to the farmers. Veterinarian should guide them as a moral obligation and needs to convey true information about this hidden loss.  At the same time farmers need to understand the ground realities and get rid of these bad practices to sustain profitability. Farmer should improve feeding and management of calves to sustain profitability.