ISLAMABAD – A study analyzed that a modest reduction in salt intake for four or more weeks caused significant falls in blood pressure in people with both raised and normal blood pressure. This happened in both men and women, irrespective of ethnic group, it was reported. The study led by researchers said that lower blood pressure levels are known to reduce the risk of stroke and heart disease.Graham MacGregor, professor of cardiovascular medicine at Queen Mary, University of London who led the study, said that the “modest reduction” in salt intake was equivalent to halving the amount of salt we consume each day. “Bread is the biggest source of salt in our diet.” He added that a further reduction in salt intake to 3g per day would have a greater effect on blood pressure and should become the long-term target for population salt intake.“Salt and potassium work in opposing ways. So a combination of lower salt  and higher potassium in our diets has a bigger effect than changing just one of those factors alone.” Clare Walton, research communications officer at the Stroke Association, said high blood pressure was the single biggest risk factor for stroke.“We know that making changes to your diet can go a long way to keeping your blood pressure under control. “This research suggests that reducing your salt intake could reduce blood pressure and keep your risk of stroke down.” The World Health Organization recommends that adults should not consume more than 5g of salt a day (about one teaspoon).Vitamin D may lower diabetes risk in obese kidsVitamin D supplements can help obese children and teens control their blood-sugar levels, which helps stave off diabetes, scientists say. Being obese puts individuals at greater risk for developing Type 2 diabetes, a disease in which individuals have too much sugar in their blood, The Indian Express reported. In the study “By increasing vitamin D intake alone, researchers got a response that was nearly as powerful as what we have seen using a prescription drug,” said Catherine Peterson, an associate professor of nutrition and exercise physiology at Missouri University.“We saw a decrease in insulin levels, which means better glucose control, despite no changes in body weight, dietary intake or physical activity,” Peterson said. All of those in the study had insufficient or deficient vitamin D levels and had similar diets and activity levels. Those who took the supplement became vitamin D sufficient and lowered the amount of insulin in their blood. “The vitamin D dosage we gave to the obese adolescents in our study is not something I would recommend for everyone,”Peterson said. Adding vitamin D supplements to their diets may be an effective addition to treating obesity and its associated insulin resistance,” Peterson added.