SMOKERS who indulge in their first cigarette shortly after waking up have an increased risk of developing lung and head and neck cancers, according to two new studies. The findings may help identify smokers who have a greater risk of developing cancer. These smokers could then be more urgently targeted for smoking cessation programs. The first studies to show a link between cigarette smoking and cancer were published back in the 1950s, but it wasnt until 1980 that nicotine dependence was recognized by the American Psychiatric Association as a psychological and physiological problem. The new studies out of Penn State College of Medicine look at nicotine dependence, which in part can be determined by the amount of time elapsed before a smoker lights up his or her first cigarette after waking up in the morning. CNN