Considering positive and significant correlation between learning and study strategies with academic achievement in nursing students, so, we suggest that students and teachers use these strategies to improve academic achievement and reduce the academic loss of students.

The academic performance is a directly observable indicator of learning. Academic performance refers to the efficiency learning from the mobilization of cognitive and emotional-volitional resources of the student when he faces with a certain work task. The performance represent the level of obtained academic results, the quantitative and qualitative changes in academic purchases. Student learning performance can be imagine and explained with a certain degree of probability if are known the factors that influence them and the way that their effects are distributed.

Academic learning is a category of learning that which has high quality of characteristic, for example, intrinsic motivation, self-control, self-direction and self-regulation, of the activity of the students. It is important to involve learners in the process of setting their own direction and means of learning and evaluation as a way of facilitating their personal autonomy and self-direction.

Many researchers have described the learning styles in different ways. Kolb classify a process of learner’s styles as convergent, divergent, assimilators and accommodators. Honey and Mumford make easier to understand the learning styles as activists, reflectors, theorists and pragmatists. This study established the shape of the frequency of learning styles (Honey and Mumford) of medical and nursing students and its correlation with elaborate teaching methodologies and academic achievements.

In Pragmatics, the learners gain knowledge by discussing a topic and then associating it with existing theory. Pragmatic learners generally prefer learning from discussion forums, listening and engaging directly (kinesthetic).

According to Kolb, learning style is not a suitable trait, but a preference for learning preference that is slowly changing from one situation to another. This model described to compare Wolf & Kolb of four learning styles of students according to preference for a particular approach to task and active strategies to sort out. The first dimension related to the perception of thinking (concrete or abstract) and the second dimension describes information processing.

Learning style have received considerable attention in recent year. It has come out of the more general research on cognitive styles.

The earliest and frequently discussed dimension of learning styles is the concept of field dependence, advocated by psychologist as well.

Kolb’s (1976) experimental learning theory is prevalent in educational setting, because his theory explains more about the teaching and learning process. Many researchers and instructors have adopted his theory and applied into different educational areas. The most important thing is that he has explained four-learner type based on his learning theories. Four learner types are convergent, divergent, assimilator and accommodator.

Claxton and Murell use an onion metaphor to describe the multi-constructs of learning styles. The multi-constructs of learning styles are compared to the layer of an onion. The core is composed of personality characteristics, then from inside to outside, the layers are sequentially information -processing the second layer, social interaction the third layer and instructional layer the forth and the outermost layer. The core is the constant and stable part.

Chuah Chong-Cheng discusses the importance of learning styles as being not only necessary, but also important for individuals in academic settings. Most students favour to learn in particular ways with each style of learning contributing to the success in retaining what they have learnt. As such, studies carried out conclude that students retain 10% of what they read, 26% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of what they see and hear, 70% of what they say, and 90% of what they say as they do something.

These facts reveal that each learning style has its own strengths and weaknesses. Some students learn in many ways, while others might only favor one or two. Those students with multiple learning styles tend to gain more and obtain higher scores compared to those who rely solely on one style. Additionally, the differences in learning styles have also been reported between gifted and the underachievers; between the learning disabled and average achievers; among different types of special education students; and among secondary students in comprehensive schools and their counterparts in vocational education and industrial arts. Some special students favor kinesthetic instruction, such as experiential, active and hands-on, while many others are auditory and visually oriented.

Finally yet importantly, we believe that academic performance is under the influence of other personality factors, cognitive factors, motivational- emotional factors etc. We believe that providing an explanation of the factors influencing academic performance - learning style and strategies that meet students’ needs and preferences. By identifying learning styles in the educational context, and behaviors in their learning, teachers use instructional strategies differentiation in relation to the type of learning(mainly theoretical and / or practical, teacher use instructional strategies differentiation in relation to the type of learning . Flexibility in training leads to academic success, to the formation of specific skills for the study program that students follow, and having as a final goal a good insertion in the labor market.

 

NADIA NOSHEEN,

AFSAR ALI, Lahore, May 8.