Zhang Monan The developed countries should shoulder their legal and moral responsibilities, instead of imposing a carbon tax on developing economies. Also, the developing countries should take active measures to head off the impact of developed countries' intensified attempts to shift the cost of their historical carbon emissions to the developing or third world nations. In a move designed to make the emerging or developing nations pay the price for the treatment of their own carbon dioxide emissions, the Unites States of America, Japan and several European nations have proposed a carbon tax on the commodities coming into their territories. On November 19, 2008, the European Parliament and the European Commission adopted a bill, including international airlines into the EU Emissions Trading Scheme System (EU ETS), and announced that it (the bill) would take effect on January 1, 2012. According to an estimate made by the International Air Transport Association, the European bill if put in place will result in an additional 2.4 billion euro cost for global airlines. This carbon tax is a new form of economic hegemony. The costs and benefits brought by global carbon emissions have long been unevenly distributed between the developed and the developing nations. More so, it is extremely unfair to use the developed countries' carbon emission standards to measure the volumes of emissions in the developing nations, since it ignores the large volume of carbon produced by the highly industrialised countries during their development. Statistics show that the developed nations are responsible for almost 80 percent of the global carbon emissions since 1950. After enjoying a high-polluting and high-energy consumption stage, they are now in a cleaner and less-polluting post-industrialised stage. In comparison, emerging nations such as China, Russia and India are still in the early or middle stage of their industrialisation and rely on heavy industries for their economic growth. The formation of a global structure of labour division that favours the developed nations has accelerated the transfer of global low-end industries, especially the high-polluting and high-emissions manufacturing sector, to the developing nations and has enabled those countries to shift some of their carbon emissions to the third world nations. Statistics indicate that as a result of this shift, as much as 1.2 billion tons of carbon emissions are passed on to China every year, 20 percent of the its total volume of carbon emissions. By imposing carbon taxes on inflowing commodities, the developed nations have their own ulterior motives. Because of their light industry-dominant industrial structure, the developed countries have lower carbon emission intensity than their developing counterparts. The tax, which is in essence a new-type of trade barrier, will protect their own homegrown enterprises and raise the export costs for developing countries, compromising their competitiveness. A carbon tax, if adopted globally, would have a huge effect on China, a fast-growing economy (and obviously other Asian states) that is fuelled by coal and oil consumption. Currently, its energy consumption for every unit of its gross domestic product is more than twice the world average. Therefore, a carbon tax would directly raise the costs for China's manufacturing sectors, reduce their profit margins and weaken their competitiveness in the international market. A survey conducted by the World Resources Institute (WRI) shows that its exported commodities have the highest level of carbon emissions among world countries. That means that China's exports will bear the brunt of any carbon tax. A World Bank report indicates that the implementation of a carbon tax in the international market would mean an additional 26-percent on "made in China" goods, and that exports would decline by 21 percent. To uphold their right to development, all the developing nations must work to ensure that the accumulated carbon emission volumes, per capita GDP and per capita disposable incomes are the standards for the distribution of global carbon emission volumes. At the same time, the developed countries should set-up a compensation mechanism for carbon emission reductions in the developing countries to protect the latter's fledging industries and their trade interests. China Daily