General Oliver Cromwell ruled England, Scotland and Ireland from December 16, 1653 until his death in September 3, 1658. As a commander of the New Model Army, which he was instrumental in forming, he defeated the forces of King Charles I, thus bringing to an end the English monarchy. Within two years of Cromwell's death, the parliament was restored. In 1661 Oliver Cromwell's body was exhumed from and was subjected to the ritual of a posthumous execution, the same date that Charles I had been executed. He was hung, drawn and quartered. In the end his body was thrown into a pit but the head was detached from his body to put on display on a pole outside the Westminster Abbey. -DR IRFAN ZAFAR, Islamabad, via e-mail, July 31.