“The mind is like an iceberg. It floats with one-seventh of its bulk above water.”


In the past two centuries, our world has experienced unprecedented changes in the shape of revolutions, industrialization and in the field of science that transformed our society, questioning traditional conservative authority. In 1886, a young physician established his medical practice in Vienna, the imperial capital of the Hapsburg empire. In his clinic, patients would lie on a couch and share their innermost anxieties and fears. These very personal stories nourished a very radical as well as a contentious way of understanding our past, desires and the factors that drive humans to act. This physician questioned the very essence of who we are, how we view the world around us and make sense of it. This couch belonged to Sigmund Freud. In Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality, we get the notions of the unconscious mind i.e. instinctual desires and information that we cannot access but our behaviour might indicate that these forces exist. One of the approaches Freud adopted was to look for human motivation and character by exploring their childhood experiences. For him, the human mind is an ocean of illogical, conflicting impulses. Some consider Freud as a hoaxer, obsessed with sex whose abstract theories cannot be proved but Freud’s ideas were a leap forward in treating illnesses of the mind. His mapping of the human mind challenged conventions and anathemas, fundamentally changing our conception of the self.