ISLAMABAD - Natural calamities are unavoidable, however, right policies and effective implementation mechanisms could reduce the human losses, experts said in a seminar on Saturday. Government should modify its disaster risk and management policy through effective integration, Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) principles, disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness and vulnerability, collaboration with the relevant stakeholders, DRR training of concerned government departments and officials, and increase investment in community infrastructure to ensure human security, rights, livelihoods and reduced effects of natural disasters.   Theses deliberations were discussed in a one-day consultation on 'Disaster Management: Citizens Charter of Demands' organised by Sustainable Development Policy Institute in collaboration with Action Aid-Pakistan. Lt. Gen (Retd) Farooq Ahmad Khan, Chairman, National Disaster Management Authority  (NDMA), who was the chief guest on the occasion, said that the internationally acknowledged successful action of post-October 2005 earthquake was a collective effort by all the stakeholders, including the people of Pakistan, who volunteered their services and resources. He also voiced a strong concern on the invisible role by the international and national NGOs in the post-earthquake scenario. He lamented that the representative bodies of NGOs did not provide them the data and information during this operation and also for the future contingency plans to determine the responses for dealing such natural calamities. He appreciated the Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) study and urging further improvement in the final report, he, however, differed with some of its facts and figures and generalisation of it on the pretext of its limited coverage and exclusion of some of the relevant stakeholders, including his own department.                   Country Director of ActionAid Pakistan, Fikre Zewdie moderated the consultation and highlighted that the study has been conducted with the spirit of sharing the experiences and to learn lessons to improve, better implement and response to the tragic situations in natural calamities in future.