The international community is still facing the threat of more than tens of thousands of nuclear warheads. It is deplorable that despite the wish of a majority of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) members for nuclear disarmament, the existence of nuclear arsenals all over the world, and above all the mentality to use or the threat to use these inhuman weapons, still threatens the entire international community. We are approaching towards the NPT Review Conference, which can be a good opportunity to tackle the main challenges of the Treaty, if this conference touches the root causes and the main issues. We have to bear in mind that the NPT was formed around three main pillars, namely nuclear disarmament, peaceful uses of nuclear energy and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. But what happened to these pillars? Indeed, the response is disappointing. Due to unjust, self-centred, discriminatory and selective approaches of the nuclear weapon states, the balance between the three main pillars has been totally ignored. Nevertheless, to believe the 24-hour propaganda machine of those who believe might makes rights is to sacrifice the truth. On the contrary, non-nuclear weapon states party to the Treaty accepted the discriminatory nature of some of the articles in the NPT with the conviction that the balance between the three pillars would ensure the widest possible exchange of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, implementation of disarmament commitments and total elimination of all nuclear weapons. Needless to say, those non-proliferation obligations have not been implemented by certain nuclear weapon states due to the fact that these states assisted non-parties to the NPT to acquire or develop such inhumane weapons. Unfortunately, the events in the last 40 years proved that the expectations of the non-nuclear weapon states were wrong. The non-compliance of certain nuclear weapon states with their obligations, according to Articles I, III, IV and VI of the Treaty, generates qualitative and quantitative development of more than 35,000 nuclear warheads, introduces the illegal concept of nuclear sharing, deprives the member states of their inalienable rights, and rewards the non-members of the NPT with generous nuclear offers while punishing the loyal members of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The disobedience of the nuclear weapon states is a matter of serious concern. For example, the decision of the United Kingdom to renew and further develop its nuclear weapons capability, by approving the Trident Project, is in full contravention with Article VI of the NPT and in defiance with the unanimous decision of the Year 2000 NPT Review Conference. The full support of some nuclear weapon states to the Zionist regime creates a situation for it that is beyond international norms. Its unbridled endeavours in developing clandestine nuclear weapons threaten seriously the security of the Middle East and beyond. While the unsafe guarded nuclear reactors of this regime are a major danger for the security of the region, the calls of the Muslim states, during the last four decades, to achieve NPT universality and to pressurise the nuclear weapon states to force the Zionist regime to join the Treaty has fallen on deaf ears. The clandestine proliferation of nuclear weapons by the Zionist regime not only constitutes the greatest threat to the peace, security and prosperity of the region, but also is the sole obstacle to the establishment of a Nuclear Weapon Free Zone in the Middle East. Despite the false propagations of the United States and some western countries, the peaceful nature of my countrys nuclear programme has been confirmed in several IAEA reports which inter alia underline that the Agency has not seen any diversion of nuclear materials to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. With the resolution of all outstanding issues of nuclear programme of my country, there is no justification for the UN Security Council to act further on this issue and the safeguard implementation in Iran should be conducted in a routine manner, as underlined by 118 countries of the Non-Aligned Movement and the OIC members. The main questions are, whether the adoption of the 'illegal resolutions by the Security Council strengthens international peace and security? Do they augment the credibility of important international mechanisms such as NPT, IAEA and even this very council? Do they enhance the confidence of countries and developing nations that they can attain their rights through these mechanisms and instruments? Do they increase trust in multilateral mechanisms? Do they decrease unilateralist tendencies? Certainly, no is the answer to all these questions. The only outcome of this illegal process is that peace-loving people and governments in the world would got convinced that they cannot rely on multilateral institutions to attain their legitimate rights, due to the instrumental use of such bodies for political and narrow-minded considerations. It is the right time to find solutions for these main problems and challenges which are rooted in injustice and discrimination. The following practical steps can help restore the original balance among the main pillars of the NPT and subsequently save the credibility of NPT: Firstly, the full and non-discriminatory implementation of all NPT provisions would, undoubtedly, benefit all states parties. Secondly, achieving the universality of the NPT by adding incentives for membership of the Treaty and putting pressure on the outsiders, instead of rewarding them, is an urgent need. Thirdly, the nuclear weapons states should fully abide by their obligations according to Article VI of the Treaty, for nuclear disarmament by reaching an agreement on a fixed timetable for the total elimination of nuclear weapons and fulfil their obligations as asserted by the ICJ in its Advisory Opinion in 1996. Fourthly, formal renouncing of nuclear weapons from the defence doctrine of all nuclear weapon states is prerequisite for nuclear disarmament. Fifthly, there is a delicate balance between the rights and the obligations in the NPT. According to the Article IV, nothing in this Treaty should be interpreted as affecting the rights of all partiers to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination. Therefore, there is no pretext for depriving member states from of right to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, including the fuel cycle technology. Sixthly, all parties to the Treaty should facilitate, and have the right to participate in, the fullest possible exchange of equipment, materials and scientific and technological information for peaceful uses of nuclear energy, which includes the fuel cycle and enrichment for nuclear power plants. Removal of all illegal limitations and sanctions is a minimum necessary task. (The writer is Minister of Foreign Affairs, Islamic Republic of Iran.)