It has become a fashion to apportion blame of present day economic malfeasance on nationalization policy of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the former Prime Minister of Pakistan. Unfortunately, this is being done without ever discussing the merits and demerits of nationalization, which was the popular slogan up to seventies. First of all, let it be known that the nationalization was the significant aspect of People Partys manifesto, which ZAB as its leader was bound to implement. It was basically a flaw in the process of implementation which impacted the good intentioned plan. Here, the question arises; was Mr Bhutto given time to correct the flaws of implementation processes? Obviously no: as the force behind the manuscript was first overthrown by his very benefactor in a successful coup and thereafter assassinated him cold-bloodedly through a judicial trial, which even one of the signatories of the Judgment has admitted in his memoir, as unfair. Moreover, Bhutto bashers more often then not simply skip Zai-ul-Haq, the vicious dictator, who remained saddled in power and undid everything Bhutto introduced only to justify his usurpation. The worst he did was to mutilate the Constitution first time adopted with consensus beyond recognition, so much so that even after his death in a plane crash it could not be restored to the original shape. When Zia finally left, the state was in complete shambles. The society become permanently addicted to foreign aid. The spread of illegal arms and drug trade, almost non existent hitherto, made the country a virtual tinderbox. Besides, the religious extremism and terrorism were the outcome of his efforts to break the hold of political parties by prompting sectarian and parochial approaches unheard of before. The nationalization was not anathema per se. In my opinion, it is as good or as bad as the present day 'privatization, 'globalization or 'market economy which have increased abject poverty in countries like Pakistan manifold. Basically, it is the way they are put into practice. The primary source to success in any filed including economic development is the quality of human capital. Regrettably our policy maker right from the beginning never tried to improve the human capital of the country. Therefore, no matter what quantum of natural resources a country is bestowed with, as in the case of Pakistan, unless its masses are educated, progress would remain a farfetched dream. On the contrary, immense natural resources become cause of nations weakness and distress, as has been in the case of many African countries whose resources are being exploited by the developed world. There is no denial that nature has bestowed this land with immense resources. What we lack however is the quality of human capital/manpower to make use of these assets for the economic development of the country. Malaysia owes its fast economic growth to its Prime Minister Mahatir Muhammads decision to educate the masses first. The radical restructuring of the society, of course is the need of the hour. However it is unattainable except government gives top priority to 'universal education i.e. providing equal education to all by allocating at least 6 percent GDP to this important social sector. AFTAB AHMED QAZI, Old Hala, December 12.