“Behold! In the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the alternation of the night and the day; in the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the benefit of mankind; in the rain which Allah Sends down from the skies, and the life which He gives therewith to an earth that is dead; in the beasts of all kinds that He scatters through the earth; in the change of the winds, and the clouds which they trail like their slaves between the sky and the earth — (Here) indeed are Signs for a people that are wise.”(Quran 2:164).
The disease of Epilepsy has occurred for thousands of years but only in the past hundred years or so has it started to be understood. The only indication of epilepsy is the epileptic seizure and anybody who has experienced or realised such a seizure knows that this participation can be terrifying and abnormal particularly without the awareness of modern science.
Recordings of seizures have been improved as far back as the first days of history and can even be found in the Bible. These archives tend to be highly illogical and religious however a few of the more logically prepared have provided more empirical observations. All of them have begun to illuminate and treat this strange phenomenon through a varied diversity of methods. The earliest cases of epilepsy originate with in Babylonians about 5th Century BC. They supposed it to be initiated by the presence of demons and the altered types of seizures depended on the nature of demon that infected the individual, though they made comments there was no indication or development of a cure, even an illogical one. The Greek civilisation have encountered with epilepsy and named it as “The Scared Disease”. The Greek thinker’s believe that epilepsy was the result of curse from the God. The Roman also believed as same as Babylonians and Greek and consider epilepsy is cursed caused by the presence of demons and if cursed person touch the other person or breathed on other the demon transfer to other unless the other person spit. In Roman Society the people with epilepsy are shunned and isolated and treated with the blood of murderer particularly a gladiator and they used different part of the body such as liver as it can cure the disease a form of cannibalism.
In 400 BC, Hippocrates wrote “Epilepsy is natural disease of brain, more than a scared or divine. It causes lies in the brain and factor that can cause seizure are cold sun and sun which can disturb the consistency of brain, therefore epilepsy must be treated not by magic but by diet and drugs. He also wrote that the cure is only applicable if the disease did not become chronic. Hippocrates views about epilepsy did not take seriously until 18th and 19thcentury. Throughout this time people with epilepsy were treated with fear, doubt and were exposed to social humiliation. They were canned as outcast and punished, however many of the people survive from epilepsy and became famous all over the world. These peoples are Julius Caesar, Czar Peter the Great of Russia, Pope Pius IX, the writer Fyodor Dostoevsky, the poet Lord Byron and others.
In the 19th century, with in the progress of modern science the neurology emerged as a new scientific discipline separate from psychiatry, the idea of epilepsy as brain disorder reported by Hippocrates and different scientist as a brain disorder is widely accepted especially in different region of Europe and North America. At the beginning of 19th Century different scientist starts work in epileptology, these scientist are Maisonneuve (1745–1826), Calmeil (1798–1895) and Jean-Etienne Dominique Esquirol (1772–1840). In the second half of 19th century the main research focus on medicine on the delineation of pathophysiology of epilepsy and the topographic localisation of epileptic seizures and the scientist contributes in this are Théodore Herpin in 1852, Louis Jean François Delasiauve in 1854, John Russell Reynolds in 1861 and in in 1881 by Sir William Richard Gowers. The epilepsy is brain disorder first proved by physiologist Fritschand psychiatrist Hitzig and their work sets the scientific basic of epileptology. The first electrical theory of epilepsy was defined by Robert Bentely Todd in 1849 in Lumleian lectures he conveyed to the Royal College of Physicians. It was thought that epilepsy was the outcome of erratic electrical discharges throughout the entire body though the brain was not designated as the source at the time. In 1912, Kaufman, a Russian physiologist, observed the electric changes in the brain during experimentally made seizures, relating epileptic attacks with abnormal electric discharges. In the same year, Pravdich-Neminsky published the first animal EEG and the evoked potential of the mammalian. In the 1930’s the first technique for testing the electrical hypothesis for epilepsy was revealed by Hans Berger when he invented the EEG. The strange electrical patterns that occurred in the brain during an epileptic seizure proved the disease to really be electrical and also revealed that its roots was in the brain. After ten years in 1939 the first animal model for epilepsy was established permitting the disease to be studied and in this year the first drug to treat epilepsy was developed.
The first anti-epileptic drug “Bromide” was used by Sir Locock in 1857 and it widely used in Europe and North America for centuries until the 1912 discovery of phenobarbital. In 1912, Hauptmann presented “phenobarbital” in the treatment of epilepsy. In 1938, another drug presented in the cure of epilepsy was “phenytoin”. Merritt, along with Putnam, revealed, the anticonvulsant ability of phenytoin and its importance in the control of epileptic seizures in 1938. Phenytoin turn into the first-line drug for the control of partial seizures and for acute cases of epilepsies, giving another therapeutic choice for patients not responding to bromides and barbiturates. In 1946, a new antiepileptic “drug tri-methadione” was formed and it was synthesized by Richards and Everett to control pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. In 1950s a variety of antiepileptic drugs are formulated such as carbamazepine in 1953, primidone in 1954, ethosuximide in 1958, sodium valproate and sultiame in 1963. In 1967, valproate came active as a new hopeful antiepileptic drug. The valproate has anticonvulsant properties was identified by Pierre Eymard, and this was the first antiepileptic drug introduced in France in 1967, and used in USA in 1978. The first antiepileptic drugs licensed by FDA “Carbamazepine” on the basis of clinical trials conducted by Penry and Cereghino in 1970s. In last few decades the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used for treatment of epilepsy include tiagabine (1998), zonisamide (1989 in Japan and 2000 in the USA), levetiracetam (2000), stiripentol (2002), pregabalin (2004), rufinamide (2004), lacosamide (2008), eslicarbazepine (2009), and perampanel (2012). The advance generation of antiepileptic drugs are vigabatrin, felbamate, gabapentin, lamotrigine, tiagabine, topiramate, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, zonisamide, pregabalin, rufinamide, and lacosamide. The advance generation reduces the consequences caused by these AEDs.