According to FAQ, food security exists when all     people, at all times have physical and economic     access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to     meet their dietary needs and food preferences for     the active and healthy life style. In spite of the significant progress that country has made in food production over the last sixty years, most urban population/communities have had to deals with uncertainty in food security on daily basis, year after year and most often generation after generation. Food insecurity is a global menace, the intensity of which may differ from nation to nation. It is a complex phenomenon, attributable to range of factors that vary across the regions, countries and social groups. These factors can be grouped in five areas i.e. Availability, accessibility, affordability, adequate storage facilities and nutritional value of the food should meet the requirements of healthy person. In aggregate over one third of the population suffers from chronic hunger. An important fact about food insecurity is that the number of undernourished population has increased from 24 percent to 28 percent the number of people deemed "food insecure" had raised to 77 million from 60 million in the last year. It highlights the fact that food insecurity in Pakistan is not necessarily the function of underproduction and bad weather. As of late 2007, increased farming for use in biofuels, world oil prices at nearly $120 a barrel, global population growth, climate change, loss of agricultural land to residential and industrial development, and growing consumer demand in China, Pakistan and India have pushed up the price of grains. Food riots have recently taken place in many countries across the globe. World Bank estimates that the doubling of food prices over the last few years could push 150 million people in low-income countries deeper into food insecurity and poverty. According to figure provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAQ) in 2006, both the agricultural production and food production rose by less then one percent. There are number of reasons, first is the post harvest loss in the cereals, second is soil degradation and less availability of irrigation water. People have shifted from agricultural sector to business sector because of low returns and high risk and uncertainty in this business. Inflation has affected the common man in Pakistan and increasing food prices mean that half of the country's population is facing "food insecurity". Following table indicates the trends in food inflation over the year. Trends in Inflation Consumer Price Index Whole Sales Price Index Month        General    Food    General    Food March2007    7.7    10.7    6.1    9.3 April 2007    6.9    9.4    6.0    8.4 May 2007    7.4    11.3    6.8    10.3 June 2007    7.0    9.7    7.3    11.2 July 2007    6.4    8.5    7.6    11.7 Aug 2007    6.5    8.6    8.0    11.5 Sep 2007    8.4    13.0    9.3    14.2 Oct 2007    9.3    14.7    11.8    15.5 Nov 2007    8.7    12.5    12.6    15.3 Dec 2007    8.8    12.2    12.2    15.8 Jan 2008        11.9    18.2    15.5    19.5 Feb 2008    11.3    16.0    16.4    18.3 March 2008    14.1    20.6    19.8    21.0 Source: SBP (2008) It is use full to define the food security at national, household and individual levels. Food security at national level may be described as a satisfactory balance between food supply and demand. The houses hold level of food security is most important. It determines the level of consumption by the individual. It may be assumed that incomes comes to house hold and all resources allocation decisions are made at house hold level and house hold consumption is divided among its members according to their needs. Households are considered to be food insecure if their demand of food is greater than their needs. An individual is food secure is his food consumption is always greater than his needs. It may be mentioned that food security at one level may not imply food security at other level. A country which is food insecure will certainly contain groups of population which are food secure as compared to other country which is food secure at national level but will contain groups of population who suffer from severe food insecurity, as in the case Pakistan. Although the per capita income has recorded a steady increase over the years yet, it does not indicates that the majority of population in Pakistan is food secure. If we look at the under nourished population, which is quite high (27 percent) despite of food sufficiency. This is an indication that food security is a serious problem in Pakistan as shown in the following table. Undernourished Population (1989-2006) Millions Year               Total        Undernourished              Undernourished            Population      Population                       Population (%) 1989-1991     110.91    26.6              24 1990-1992     113.75    27.8              24 1991-1993     116.54    28.1              24 1992-1994     119.35    26.4              22 1993-1995     122.22    25.4              21 1994-1996     125.22    24.7              20 1995-1997     128.47    24.8              19 1996-1998     131.99    26.1              20 1997-1999     135.45    27.9              20 1998-2000     139.76    28.2              20 1999-2001     142.62    29.4              20 2000-2002     146.30    32.1              22 2001-2003     149.03    35.2              23 2002-2004     151.09    37.5              24 2003-2005     153.96    38.2              25 2004-2006     156.77    39.4              27 Source: FAO The following conclusions could be drown from the experience of Pakistan * The main cause of the food insecurity in Pakistan today is due to lowering of purchasing power among the poor and vulnerable population in rural and urban centres of the country. * Another major factor responsible for food insecurity is the shift from agriculture sector to industry. As a result of inadequate attention towards the agriculture sector, the production level has fallen drastically as compared to ever growing consumption. * Post harvest losses in the case of cereals are very high. The aggregate losses in wheat, rice and maize at post harvest level in country are 15.3, 17.1 and 12.69 percent, respectively. * Many of the soils have low levels of nitrogen and phosphorous which are vital for plant growth. With the elimination of, or drastic reduction in government subsidies for agriculture resulting from structural adjustment programmes, many farmers cannot afford fertilizers to improve the land fertility. The question then arise as to what steps should be taken to face the daunting food security problems of the country. It can go into long list, but only few of the priority area are mentioned below which includes both short and long-term measures. * Most agricultural research is devoted to developing high yielding varieties and improving soil quality. With both high yielding seeds and more fertile soils, rice and wheat yield could be doubled, sorghum yield can be triple and maize yield could quadruple. * Government should announce an agriculture friendly policy. * Measures should be taken to increase the purchasing power of the poor against high wheat prices like food coupon and ration cards. * The data collection of production of crops should be improved, similarly the demand projection need improvement. These are the basic essentials elements for the food security. * Subsidizing the cost of inputs particularly of fertilizers, seed and diesel etc can enhance the productivity of crops. * High yielding varieties with less water requirement should be evolved. * Food grains storage capacity needs to be enhanced, not only in capacity but also in quality, both in producing and consuming areas. * Dry areas in Balochistan, offer high potential for agriculture, which should be given due emphasis. * Huge investment should be made in this sector to alleviate poverty among the rural masses. All these measures would help in stabilizing food security in country.