KARACHI - The promotion of textile exports is likely to improve women employment in paid labour force. The export of these commodities can be enhanced through greater accesses to international markets, says SPDC report. The Social Policy and Development Centre on Saturday released a research report on Trade Liberalisation and Gender Dynamics of Employment in Pakistan. According to the report findings, bilateral agreement with European countries and US to allow greater access to their markets would also have a positive impact on women employment. This can be supplemented with other policies like enhancing competitiveness of Pakistani exports both in terms of price and quality. Report highlighted that output of agriculture and manufacturing sectors have a considerable effect on female labour force participation. Government, therefore, needs to focus on the process of economic revival which is of paramount importance to improve the rate of participation of women in productive employment. Given the concentration of women in rural activities, policies for increasing agricultural growth, especially in livestock and other female labour-intensive activities, are important in sustaining the contribution of women to the rural economy. In addition, industrial revival policies need to be put in place if the continuing process of displacement of women from this sector is to be reduced. Supporting the growth of exports in particular, in items like garments, leather, jewellery, sports goods, etc., where women play an important role, has to be a key component of the policy for raising industrial production. Therefore, implementation of the range of counter-cyclical monetary and fiscal policies is necessary not only for raising the level of employment, but also to improve the job prospects for women, report said. Report claimed that majority of the employed women in agriculture are unpaid family helpers, the question then arises to address this issue and to make them economically empowered. In this regard, gender bias in land ownership is one of the causes, which limits their capacity to get financial benefits of their labour. Report revealed that the reasons for low gains accrued to women from trade liberalisation are inadequate presence of multinational firms and international brands in value added textile and leather items. The experience of other developing countries suggests that these firms have played an instrumental role in promoting women employment. Majority of the female in manufacturing sector are engaged in textile sector, therefore, there is a need to build the human capital of female labour force required to enhance and improve manufacturing export capacity. Report recommended that to address the nature of vulnerability and make women more competitive, it is important to ensure women educational gains, particularly in view of rapidly changing technological requirements for labour. Equally important for the government is to identify policies and initiate measures that would help address the problems of labour market insecurity, low pay, and gender discrimination in informal employment. The formulation of trade and labour force policies needs to be done in consultations with representatives of women workers. Development of rural infrastructure particularly provision of electricity and construction of farm-to-market road will help rural women to get greater access to information, a pre-requisite for any real gains of trade liberalization, it added. There are a number of socio-economic factors that hinder them from obtaining loans Including a) insufficient collateral or non-availability of collateral b) higher mark-up c) lack of sufficient knowledge about the bank and banking products d) lack of technical expertise about financial system e) complicated documentation procedures or tedious paper work for obtaining loan f) slow and longer process of approval of loans g) multiple visits to the bank in the presence of mobility constraints.