The Climate Change Conference starts in Bonn, Germany, which will be held until 27 June.

The conference brings together countries and aims to advance global actions by highlighting most pressing climate change related issues, addressing barriers and proposing solutions.

The climate change debate seriously stirred in the late 80s, which creation of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international environmental treaty, validated in 1992. UNFCCC is the only international climate policy framework that aims to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. Every year, parties of the Convention meet twice a year to assess the progress and way forward for dealing with the issue of climate change

During this conference, two UNFCC bodies are convening the negotiations, which are focusing on climate action plans and applications, and climate science and review of scientific reports and data. Other than the negotiations, various environmental organizations and countries are organizing numerous side events to highlight global climate actions and to advance effective climate agendas.

The session formally kick started with a Plenary Session, where agenda points for the next two weeks were decided jointly in the presence of all the parties of UNFCCC. Emmanuel Dlamini, Chair of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation, UNFCC opened the session and reiterated on the importance of advancing climate change efforts by saying,

“Now is the time for urgent action. Gone is the time for reflection.” Paul Watkinson, Chair of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, UNFCC urged the parties to action and said, “We should respond to climate crisis within our efforts to achieve the SDGs and sustainable development.”

Over the coming two weeks, the Conference aims to undertake and resolve the outstanding issues of the Paris Agreement, which is a global agreement towards the fighting climate change. More specifically, the Conference will focus on stepping up ambition towards reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, based on the recommendations of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 oC. The session will also address and come to consensus on the much-debated topic of carbon markets, which has greatest climate change implications and remained most disputed topic during the last climate conference. Another unsettled issue from last year, which the Conference aims to advance, is having common timeframes for implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), which are climate plans of each country. Efforts will also be made to discuss and resolve many other topics including loss and damages incurred by the least developed and developing countries as a result of climate change induced disasters, along with agreements on flow and mechanism of climate finance from the Global North to the Global South. Hope of survival for many vulnerable global communities is hinging on the outcomes of this conference including those in Pakistan. Higher ambition for reducing greenhouse gases will ultimately wwbenefit vulnerable developing countries like Pakistan the most. While concrete decision on climate support will allow adaptation to the adverse impacts of climate change. Now more than ever the impacts of climate change are seen around the world and it is the global effort, which can address this issue and save lives of billions around the world.

–The writer is a freelance contributor