Islamabad - Migraine is a very common problem these days but not every headache is migraine. Similarly, migraine cannot be regarded as an ordinary headache and needs special treatment. So, it’s important to know the difference between these two ailments,

Here are a few things to consider when we distinguish between these two different headaches.

Migraine headache is normally followed by nausea and vomiting. The pain can be of moderate intensity, as it can be of severe one. It becomes strong with movement or physical activity.

The recipient of pain tends to have lightophobia i.e. sensitivity to light, and phonophobia, sensitivity to sound. This kind of pain lasts for about four to 72 hours.

If you don’t have above mentioned conditions then you have an ordinary headache and you are not a migrainer. Young people are at more risk for this condition. Though men start having it at age earlier as compared to women yet women suffer more from this ailment. Furthermore, there is a genetic and hormonal factor involved.

Those who have migrainer mothers are more prone to it. Also, if somebody experiences any hormonal change, this kind of headache is likely to happen.

REM sleep essential for normal memory formation

A team of scientists may at last have settled a long-standing debate about the role of rapid eye movement sleep in memory formation. Using mice, they reveal the activity of certain brain cells during this dreaming phase of sleep - but not at other times - is essential for normal memory consolidation.

Prof Williams says they decided to target the brain cells that control the activity of the hippocampus - a part of the brain that is important for forming memories while we are awake. It is also known as the brain’s “inner GPS” because it helps us map and navigate our environment.

For their study, the team ran experiments where mice completed spatial memory tasks that trained them to recognize new objects placed in a controlled environment already containing other objects of similar shape and size.

However, when they used light pulses to switch off a certain group of memory-associated brain cells while the mice were in REM sleep, the researchers found the mice could not successfully complete the memory tasks they had learned the previous day.

The brain cells the researchers targeted are called “medial septum-aminobutyric acid-releasing” neurons.

They used an approach called optogenetics to switch them off. This method uses mice that have been genetically engineered to have brain cells that can be switched off using light pulses.

Compared with a control group of mice that did not have the light-pulse treatment, the memories of the treated mice appeared to have been erased, or at least disrupted.

The researchers ran the tests several times, experimenting with switching off other groups of brain cells, or the same group of brain cells during other, non-REM phases of sleep, or while the mice were awake. However, none of them had the same effect.

“Silencing the same neurons for similar durations outside REM episodes had no effect on memory. This indicates that neuronal activity specifically during REM sleep is required for normal memory consolidation.”

REM is known to be an important component of sleep for humans as well as mice and other mammals, and poor quality of sleep is linked to several brain disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

Researchers have found that REM sleep in particular is disrupted in Alzheimer’s disease. The team in this study say its findings suggest disruption of REM sleep could be factor in causing the memory problems seen in Alzheimer’s disease.