“Ignorance leads to fear, fear leads to hatred, and

hatred leads to violence. This is the equation.”


–Ibn Rushd


Since 18th century there were voices that would advocate for women rights and their participation in public sphere more vigorously. The advocates of women rights and their participation in public life were Europeans. While Europe attribute feminism as the outcome of Enlightenment project, it is also important credit to a Muslim scholar of early 12th century, Ibn-Rushd who can be rightly called as the first proto feminist. He for the time argued that women and men are same. There is no difference in their intellectual capabilities.

He advocates their active participation in society and performance of all tasks, including those that had been the prerogative of men. He insists on allowing women a greater role in public affairs for the benefit of the entire state.

In present times, when female liberties are under frequent attacks both in Europe and especially in Muslim world, scholars and human rights activists can refer back to his work to counter the extremist and conservative narrative that is presently dominating the public and intellectual spheres of our lives.