Historically, cities have been the driving force in economic and social development. The level of urbanisation in Pakistan is now the highest in South Asia which was 36% in 2008. With over 5 million rural migrants each year, the population of Pakistani cities is exploding, and Karachi has now become the worlds largest city. The increasing urbanization is causing problems for the social services in Pakistan, and has led to rising of urban poverty. The illusion of plentiful and better job opportunities and a better quality of life is often shattered when people from rural areas move to urban cities and towns. Poverty is now growing at a much faster pace in urban areas than in rural areas. Millions of people live in urban slums, which are typically overcrowded, polluted and dangerous, and lack basic services such as clean water and sanitation. Urban air quality has deteriorated largely on account of growth in industrial activity, transportation needs and energy production. The growing demand of water, along with poor water resource management and mounting pollution levels contributes to water supply problems in and around cities. As the number of people in urban area increases, so does the demand for food and hence for irrigation in agricultural areas close to cities. There is urgent need for the policymakers and planners to revisit the urban situation across the country. The medium and small towns are expanding with appreciable pace in an unorganized manner. They need appropriate planning and policy intervention to accommodate the rising urban population. Vast majority of people in rural Pakistan still depend on agriculture, for their livelihood. It is also the area with the most unemployment, underemployment, and poverty. No doubt, villages are in a state of neglect and under-development, with impoverished people, as result of past legacies and defects in our planning process and investment pattern. But the potential in rural Pakistan is immense. What if every village in the country is provided with basic amenities, like drinking water, electricity, health care, educational transport, communication and other facilities? When this happens Pakistan will turn into a mighty country. The purchasing power of the rural population throwing enormous demand for goods and services will boost the national economy tremendously. The day will see the reverse migration of people from the urban slums back to the villages. Shaukat Masood Zafar