Serene ASSIR - A fireman of Algerian origin, Faisal helped evacuate thousands from the Stade de France during the Paris attacks , guiding panicked football fans to safety as suicide bombers blew themselves up outside.

Now he fears the November 13 massacre across the French capital will deepen a dangerous "them and us" schism between France's five-million-strong Muslim population and the rest of society.

The militants behind the attacks appear to be Europeans of Arab origin, and the 40-year-old fireman worries that French Muslims may suffer greater discrimination as a result. "If you have a Muslim name, they stop seeing you as a French person and they start to see you as an Arab, a potential terrorist," Faisal said.

The attacks will also exacerbate an existing problem, he fears - that many Muslims don't feel part of France, and even resent it. And that resentment is precisely what the Islamic State group seeks to exploit.

Like others around Boulevard Barbes, a bustling microcosm of Paris' second and third-generation ethnic communities, Faisal condemned the attacks outright.

"I was working inside the Stade de France Friday night when we got the call on the radio to evacuate everyone. But when this kind of attack happens, it deepens the separation between us and the rest of society," the fireman said.

France's Muslim community - the largest in Europe - is as diverse as the country itself. But there are many who voice anxiety about their place in a country with a bloody colonial history in North Africa and a commitment to secularism that some see as contradictory with Islamic traditions.

This anxiety spiked as politicians such as ex-prime minister Alain Juppe calling on Muslims to publicly "say they have nothing to do with this barbarism".

"Muslims do not have to justify themselves... Are they guilty by association?" responded an opinion piece writer, Hatem Nafti, in left-leaning daily Liberation.

Alienation

French-born Mohammad, a 30-year-old Algerian CD and DVD shop owner in Barbes, and his friend Samir did some painful soul-searching.

"The problem is with how they treated immigrants to begin with (40-50 years ago). They put the Arabs in (sprawling suburban areas) far from everyone else," Mohammad said, nervously puffing at a Marlboro cigarette.

Decades after the first major waves of migration in the 1960s, many thousands of people still live in low-cost housing projects in Paris' downtrodden banlieue (suburbs), where petty crime is rife and life is completely different from the glittering city centre.

Jobs are harder to come by, with unemployment estimated in 2013 at 23 percent in contrast with nine percent elsewhere in the city.

The suburbs - and also parts of the 18th district, where Barbes is located - saw major riots in 2005 that emphasised the alienation.

It is this feeling of disenfranchisement that can be exploited by IS, warn researchers, with people on the fringes drawn to a movement that can give misguided aims to directionless youth.

'Dis-integration'

Didier Lapeyronnie, who teaches sociology at Paris' La Sorbonne university, said many French Muslims "do not feel like they are part of the national community".

And for a tiny minority, jihadism can be used to build an alternative worldview.

"Terrorism is not necessarily linked to marginalisation," Lapeyronnie said, adding however that "in some areas... a counter-culture, a counter-society has been created, and Islam is used to construct a worldview." "There is a political failure of the integration model... a process of dis-integration," he said.

Paris-based expert Karim Bitar says IS takes full advantage of this.

The group "has a well-honed dual strategy of tapping into feelings of humiliation of Sunnis in Iraq and Syria and simultaneously exploiting the alienation of disenfranchised Muslim youth in Europe," he told AFP.

Some 1,000 French men and women have joined IS in Iraq and Syria. The group has "everything to gain from recruiting French youth: they improve their operational capabilities considerably and they psychologically score a victory by sharpening the contradictions within Western societies," said Bitar of the Institute for International and Strategic Affairs.

'In it for the adrenalin'

European recruits do not necessarily know much about Islam at all, nor are they necessarily seeking to escape a life of want.

Two of the Paris attackers, Brahim and Salah Abdelslam, ran a bar in Belgium which was shut down because of reports that customers smoked marijuana there.

Militant recruits "are often in it for the adrenalin, the adventure, the excitement and to escape their existential malaise," Bitar said. Wearing his hair close-shaven and a black leather jacket, Samir in the Barbes music shop agreed.

"They (the militants) recruit people with criminal records online to do their dirty work, offering them protection," said Samir, a security guard, as electronic Algerian pop boomed in the background. "It hurts that they don't see the difference between me and the terrorists."

Anti-Muslim crime soars in BritainAnti-Muslim hate crimes rose 300 percent in Britain in the week following the coordinated attacks in Paris, according to figures published on Monday.

A "vast and overwhelming majority" of the 115 attacks were against Muslim women and girls aged between 14 and 45 who were wearing traditional Islamic dress, according to the findings reported in The Independent newspaper.

The perpetrators were mainly white males aged between 15 and 35, according to the report, which noted that the true numbers of attacks were likely much larger than those reported.

The figures come from a report to a government working group on anti-Muslim hate compiled by Tell Mama, a helpline that records incidents of physical and verbal attacks on mosques and Muslims.

A large number of the attacks occurred in public places such as buses and trains.

"Many of the victims have suggested that no one came to their assistance or even consoled them, meaning that they felt victimised, embarrassed, alone and angry about what had taken place against them.

"Sixteen of the victims even mentioned that they would be fearful of going out in the future and that the experiences had affected their confidence."

The rise in attacks is in line with a similar increase that happened after the murder in south London of British soldier Lee Rigby by Muslim extremists in 2013, according to the report.

Islamophobic and anti-Semitic incidents had already risen sharply before the attacks in Paris, by 70.7 percent and 93.4 percent respectively in the year to July 2015 compared to the previous 12-month period, according to police figures.

In all, 816 Islamophobic incidents were recorded in Greater London between July 2014 and July 2015, compared to 478 in the previous period. The same period saw 499 anti-Semitic incidents, a rise from 258 the previous year.

The police did not give a breakdown on whether the recorded attacks were physical or verbal assaults, but said there were a number of factors leading to the rise including a greater willingness of victims to report such incidents and better police recording. Britain has 2.7 million Muslim residents and a Jewish population of 263,000, according to the 2011 census.

Anti-Muslim crime soars in Britain

Anti-Muslim hate crimes rose 300 percent in Britain in the week following the coordinated attacks in Paris, according to figures published on Monday.

A "vast and overwhelming majority" of the 115 attacks were against Muslim women and girls aged between 14 and 45 who were wearing traditional Islamic dress, according to the findings reported in The Independent newspaper.

The perpetrators were mainly white males aged between 15 and 35, according to the report, which noted that the true numbers of attacks were likely much larger than those reported.

The figures come from a report to a government working group on anti-Muslim hate compiled by Tell Mama, a helpline that records incidents of physical and verbal attacks on mosques and Muslims.

A large number of the attacks occurred in public places such as buses and trains.

"Many of the victims have suggested that no one came to their assistance or even consoled them, meaning that they felt victimised, embarrassed, alone and angry about what had taken place against them.

"Sixteen of the victims even mentioned that they would be fearful of going out in the future and that the experiences had affected their confidence."

The rise in attacks is in line with a similar increase that happened after the murder in south London of British soldier Lee Rigby by Muslim extremists in 2013, according to the report.

Islamophobic and anti-Semitic incidents had already risen sharply before the attacks in Paris, by 70.7 percent and 93.4 percent respectively in the year to July 2015 compared to the previous 12-month period, according to police figures.

In all, 816 Islamophobic incidents were recorded in Greater London between July 2014 and July 2015, compared to 478 in the previous period. The same period saw 499 anti-Semitic incidents, a rise from 258 the previous year.

The police did not give a breakdown on whether the recorded attacks were physical or verbal assaults, but said there were a number of factors leading to the rise including a greater willingness of victims to report such incidents and better police recording. Britain has 2.7 million Muslim residents and a Jewish population of 263,000, according to the 2011 census.