“God forbid that the British Government should ever seek to maintain its rule in India by fomenting race hatreds amongst its subjects. Its antecedents, its strength, its self-confidence and its dignity will forever render a recourse to such expedients unnecessary and impossible.”

–The Viceroy of India,

Lord Dufferin, 1984-1888.


This was said at the time when the Congress was organising itself to become more popular, and the Muslims were rising up in revolt to British and Hindu oppression. These words were said diplomatically, by the ruler of the land at the time. Lord Dufferein, had to accept that his own words were not true in light of the circumstances of the time, but it is said that he accepted this as a challenge, an adventure of sorts. At the time the British saw them selves as “protectors” of the millions that the Congress party aimed to represent. Their tentative equilibrium would break apart soon.