LAHORE - A book titled ‘Atlas of the Islamic conquests’ presents insightful details of the early Islamic era conquests when Muslims conquered a large portion of the world.

It is the periodic golden history of Islamic conquests, compiled by Ahmed Adil Kamal and translated by Samih Stretch and Mohsin Farani and published by Darussalam publication.

The book consists of six parts. The first part highlights the Islamic conquests themes and their nature and discusses the strategies executed by Muslims to conquer other countries.

Starting from the expeditions of Khalid bin Walid in the east of Hejaz against the Byzantine Empire and expeditions in the north and west at Yarmuk River, Tripoli and Babylon, this book narrates the insightful details of wars in Arabian Peninsula and in Hijaz, Fadak, Najd and Bahrain.

The book gives details on the wars on apostasy and from tribal organisation in the Arabian Peninsula that includes Oman and Samawah.

The second part of this book consists on Muslims expeditions in Iraq, war with Romans and Persian Empires. The authors presented significant details of the countries at the time of conquest which gave alternative view to reader what were the geographical, economical and social conditions of that country.

It also highlights the decisive battle of Qadisiyyah and Mada’in. The authors have given a comparison of Islamic and Persian armies before the battle took place. They describe that the location of Qadisiyyah held important advantages for the Muslims for it was at the edge of the desert, lying beside the land of Sawad, containing rivers, pools and flood streams.

An interesting chapter was on Sassanid Persian Empire. Derafsh Kaviyani was a flag made by Kava, the blacksmith. It is said that under this flag Fridun had got victory over the cruel King Dahhak. The flag was of great imperial standard of Sassanid Persia, the flag of the nation. According to some historians, Persians had been victorious in all of the battles. They used to seek blessings from it and embellish it, until it became the wonder of the age. On the day of Battle of Qadisiyyah, the flag fell into the hands of Dirar Ibn Khattab.

The book then tells the exciting details of conquest of Chosroes (Kasra) and the most important city – Bahrasher - located on the southern bank of River Tigris (Iraq). Sa’ad (RA) used 20 manajaniq (catapult) to pound the city which he besieged for two months. The Persians crossed the Tigris to another r nearby city and burnt its bridge and they gathered their ships to their side.

So Muslims scaled the walls of Bahrasher and advanced via its roads. In the darkness of the night, they reached the Tigris, while on the other bank, lays Asfanbar, the abode of the Royal Family before them with army.

Listening in the middle of the night, they swathe Great Iwan of Chosoes (Castle of Kasra) with its lofty, white dome and Muslims began to exclaim “Allah is the Greatest” till morning. At that time, the flooding of the Tigris began and so Hazrat Sa’ad (RS) hastened to cross the river on horseback along with his troops.

The book narrates that Muslims killed most of the Persians army and entered the palace of Chosoes and offered a prayer of thanks to the Almighty for this clear help. The author writes “....And all this occurred in the same Iwam in which Khusrau Pervez tore up the letter from the Prophet (PBUH) and in which discussion between Yazdegerd and messengers of Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqqas (RA) took place.

The third part consists upon the conquests of Al-Maghrib, Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria. A whole chapter is allocated for the conquests of the Spain (Al-Andulus). The book however did not mention Muslims’ battle with Charles Martel of France.

The conquest of Sindh and attack of Muhammad Bin Qasim, Mediterranean Sea battle and Muslim’s naval campaign of Constantinople and conquest of Sicily is also discussed. The last part of book includes the conquests during the early Era of Ottoman Empire, rebuilding of Ottoman Empire, Sultan Muhammad-II the conqueror of Constantinople, and Zenith of the Ottoman Empire.

In last chapter, the author has discussed Patriarch Benjamin, who was 38th Orthodox Patriarch of the Copts of Egypt. Benjamin fled from place to place until Hazrat Amr Ibn Al As (RA) arrived to conquer Egypt. The companion of the holy Prophet (PBUH) gave him protection and said: “Deal with all of your church and its men and organise their affairs (in Egypt).”