The UNSC, as expected, unanimously passed the US-sponsored resolution relating to nonproliferation and nuclear disarmament. This reflects the desire of the international community to rid the world of nuclear weapons. However, the main players rarely seem to go beyond their rhetoric. President Obama has made a policy shift on nuclear issues from the Bush Administration. He has voiced a commitment to reviving the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), but one has to wait and see if and when he will move this issue before the US Congress, which effectively had killed the Treaty earlier. A two-day conference on the CTBT in New York called on nine critical states to ratify this Treaty. Of these nine, the US, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, China and Egypt have signed but not ratified the CTBT, while Pakistan, India and North Korea have not signed the Treaty. There are a number of issues involved here and the most important is the fact that the US, needs to now make the first move to revive it. The Obama Administration has to show its seriousness on the issue by taking it before Congress once again. The rest of the world should wait to see what happens next. The regular CTBT conference is to be held on October 12 and Obama should have approached the Congress by then, if he is serious. As for Pakistan, its security dynamics will have to define its CTBT position. It now has to confront the US-India nuclear cooperation; the US seeking a Fissile Material Cut Off Treaty without verifications and without rollback of existing fissile stockpiles; and India preparing the ground for more tests to improve its fusion weapon capability. Equally important for Pakistan, it faces an accentuated security environment with not only an aggressive India to the East, but also a militarized environment on its Western and southern borders with extra-regional forces in Afghanistan and Central Asia, and a growing militarisation of the Indian Ocean to its south and southwest. The strategic alliance between India and the US has a heavy military component including the development of missile defence systems. Within this new security environment, Pakistan will have to see whether it can simply accede to the CTBT - even if India does. Of course, it will not have to make that decision anytime soon since India has shown no intent of signing the CTBT. It goes without saying that Pakistan would like to see a nuclear free world. Equally clear is the Pakistani position that nuclear disarmament has to be nondiscriminatory and must be tied in to conflict resolution in areas where longstanding conflicts and a history of wars exist.