The National College of Business Administration and Economics awarded PhD degrees to Sajjad Ahmed Jan and Zahid Pervaiz in the field of Economics. The topic of research by Sajjad Ahmed was “How internal and external conflicts affect development: An evidence from Pakistan”. The research topic of Zahid Parvaiz was inclusiveness, social cohesion and economic performance. Research scholar Sajjad completed his dissertation under the supervision of Dr Muhammad Wasif Siddique while Zahid Pervaiz completed his thesis under the supervision of Prof Dr AR Chaudhry.