The miraculous creation of Pakistan is attributed to blessings of Allah. The early death of Quaid and the assassination of Liaqat Ali Khan proved to be the turning point of our history. The establishment, civil and military bureaucracy, realized that survival of the elite was directly linked with the blessings of America. The result was that the country, in its early years, was ruled by a demented geriatric gentleman who could not even speak properly. He took his instructions directly from his American Lady Secretary. Intervention by the Army was the final nail in the already sealed coffin of democracy. Army was always keener to stride the corridors of power than the volatile borders of the country. Geography changed twice during military regimes. Fall of Dhaka and the loss of Siachen are a sad part of our history now. The only example when the borders of our country expanded was during the tenure of one of the weakest prime ministers, Feroze Khan Noon; Gwadar became a part of our country when it was bought for pittance. It might turn out to be the smartest investment we made. From Ayub Khan s Green Revolution to Yahya Khan s ill-fated rule and from General Zia s Islamization to President Musharraf s enlightened moderation, the rulers have had their strings pulled by the same superpower. -DR FUAD SHAFIQ, Lahore, via e-mail, May 11.