Islamabad - According to recent research, guava can help improve your skin texture and avoid skin problems more than the best of beauty creams can do.

This is chiefly due to the abundance of astringents in the fruit and in its leaves. You can benefit from it either by eating (this help tighten your muscles apart from your skin) or by washing your skin with the decoction of its immature fruits and leaves. It will tone up and tighten the loosened skin .

In addition, to the astringents, guava is very rich in vitamins  A, B, C and potassium which are very good anti-oxidants and detoxifiers and keep your skin glowing and free from aging, wrinkles and other disorders.

Fluoride layer too thin to

protect teeth: study

Fluoride in some toothpaste and mouthwash, believed to prevent tooth decay, may actually be ineffective as the so-called protective layer it forms is too thin, scientists say.

Experimental physicist Frank Müller and colleagues from Saarland University in Germany point out that tooth decay was a major public health problem worldwide, the journal Langmuir reports.

Scientists have known that fluoride makes enamel – the hard white substance covering the surface of teeth – more resistant to decay, said a Saarland university statement.

New research found that the fluorapatite layer formed in this way was only six nanometers thick.

It would take almost 10,000 such layers to span the width of a human hair. That’s between 10 to 100 times thinner than what previous studies indicated.

Reducing prescription opioid

addiction by switching receptors

A study investigates the possibility of targeting a specific subtype of opioid receptor in an attempt to reduce its addictive qualities.

Opioid painkillers produce brain abnormalities that lead to dependence and addiction. Dependence can be relieved after a few days or weeks away from the medication; the changes related to addiction, however, are more complex and long-lasting.

study author Nathaniel Jeske said that “People living with chronic pain have few innovative analgesic options available to them outside of systemic opioids. Prolonged use of these opioids can result in respiratory depression, tolerance, addiction, and overdose.”

Researchers from the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio recently published work investigating an innovative new approach to the problem.

Current opioids specifically target mu opioid receptors, including the ones in the brain - hence the potential for abuse. Jeske, with first author Allison Doyle Brackley and their team, set out to investigate the possibility of targeting receptors outside of the brain.

The researchers found that a protein - GRK2 (G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2) - binds to delta opioid receptors in the sensory neurons of rats; this binding prevents them from becoming active. However, when these receptors came into contact with an inflammatory molecule that is normally released in response to an injury - bradykinin - this binding changed.

Bradykinin caused GRK2 to move away from the delta receptors, triggering a biochemical reaction that resulted in the receptors regaining their function.

This study adds to medical science’s understanding of GRK2’s functions. It is the first time that its inhibitory effect on delta opioid receptors in the peripheral nervous system has been seen.

“By shedding light on how inflammation activates delta opioid receptors, this research could potentially lead to the development of safer, more effective opioids for the treatment of pain.”

Nathaniel Jeske

The findings will need to be replicated in human tissue, but the findings could open the door to a new approach to pain medication. In the long run, innovations of this type have the potential to save thousands of lives.