Azerbaijan is a marvellous country with its unlimited natural resources, centuries old culture, history and ancient people, whose lifestyle presents a unique and harmonious combination of the traditions and ceremonies of different cultures and civilizations; 86.6 thousand square km, bordering with Iran (765 km) and Turkey (15 km) on the south, Russia (390 km) on the north, Georgia (480 km) on the north-west and Armenia (1007 km) on the west. Acceptance of Islam in the 7th century made a great change in the history of Azerbaijan by its moral and religious values. Islam as a common religion of Turkic and non-Turkic ethic groups brought to formation of the same traditions, widening of kinship relations and deepening of the integration process and united all the Muslim Turkic and non-Turkic ethic groups to struggle against the imperia of Byzantium and Armenian feudal lords. The Turkic-Muslim tribes moved into the region in 11.century. The great empires of the period, such as Kara Koyunlu, Ak Koyunlu, Safavid, Afshar and Gajar were directly ruled by the Azeri-Turkic dynasties. In 1828, Tsardom Russia occupied Azerbaijan. With the purpose to create support for itself in the Southern Caucasus, Russia on mass scale resettled Armenians from abroad into the territories of Azerbaijan, especially to Nagorno-Karabakh, Iravan and Nakhchivan khanates. In the territories of the former Iravan and Nakhchivan khanates, the process of foundation of future Armenian state over Azeri lands was started. Armenians were armed and then began mass genocide against Turkic-Muslim Azeris. On May 28, 1918, the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan the first Parliamentary Republic, the first democratic, legal, secular and Muslim state in the whole East and Islamic world. Parliament discussed over 270 drafts. 230 of them were adopted. During 23 month time, the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan proved that no colonial or repression regime is able to crush liberty ideals and state traditions of Azerbaijani people. The first theatre in the Muslim East was created in Azerbaijan, and the first opera was also staged here. Azerbaijan was the first country in the Muslim world to give women voting rights. In 1930s, the large scale communist repression was conducted against the patriot Azerbaijanis. The situation has been changing since 1960s when patriot local leaders came to power in Azerbaijan. The late period of the formation of Azerbaijani statehood started with the regaining of independence on October 18, 1991 after collapse of USSR and is still successfully going on. The patriotism and Turkic-Islamic ideals were revived in Azerbaijan. In 1993, Heydar Aliyev was elected the president of the independent Azerbaijan. Under his leadership (1993-2003), Azerbaijan ensured its political-economic stability and started the development in the different fields of social and economical life, as well as on human rights and democracy. As a result, Azerbaijan was accepted as a full member of the Council of Europe in 2001. Today, Azerbaijan is pursuing balanced policy expanding the relations with both Eastern and Western countries. Azerbaijan is also cultural bridge between Muslim and Western countries. Azerbaijan won 2011 Eurovision Song Contest which proves that Muslim country Azerbaijan possesses Western values as well. Today, independent Azerbaijan is an active member of UN, Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC), Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Council of Europe (CE), Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), GUAM, Black Sea Economic Collaboration (BSEC), and Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). Azerbaijan is presidential republic. The constitution of Azerbaijan Republic (1995) characterizes Azerbaijan as a democratic, constitutional, secular and unitary republic. And the power is divided into the legislative (parliament), executive (president) and judicial (courts) branches. President shall be the head of the Azerbaijan Republic. The president and head of the state of the Republic of Azerbaijan is H.E. Mr. Ilham Aliyev (2003- ). Azerbaijan is a Muslim country. Azeri population adopted Islam with by the early representatives of this religion in the 18th year of Muslim era (639). At present about 93 percent of the more than 9 million Azerbaijanis have a Muslim background. During the Soviet occupation, Islam was prohibited in Azerbaijan by communists. In 1976, there were only 16 registered mosques. After regaining independence (1991), thousands of mosques over the country, innumerable Islamic schools, the Islamic university, and Ilahiyyat Department under Baku State University were established. We can summarize governmental course on Islam: 1) Islam is dear to Azerbaijanis because they worship Islam. At the same time, Islam is very important part of Azerbaijani peoples national culture. 2) Islam performs a significant factor of moral, ethical and national unity. 3) Islam requires its followers to be tolerant and treat others mercifully. Mutual understanding and dialogue between peoples and religious groups is one of the needs of humanity in present situation. The Government of Azerbaijan has been doing its best to create good conditions for Muslims and populations worshipping other religions. Azerbaijan is now a fast developing and stable country. Over the last seven years (2004-2011), the countrys economy has grown almost threefold. More than 900,000 jobs have been created and the number of people living below the poverty line has fallen by 4.5 times. Amount of $100 billion was invested in Azerbaijani economy. Democracy and human rights in Azerbaijan Today: Since the first days of independence, Azerbaijan faced various problems and obstacles. By the efforts of then president Heydar Aliyev, Azerbaijan was saved from bloody civil confrontations and the danger of a complete collapse in 1993-95. The Constitution of the Azerbaijan (1995) guarantees freedom of expression; opinion and conscience and other human rights. Currently, 42 registered political parties are active in the Azerbaijan Republic. All kind of censorship was abolished on August 6, 1998. At present 1830 mass media agencies have been registered in Azerbaijan and 1750 of these are newspapers, 80 are TV and radio agencies. 15 TV channels act in Azerbaijan and one of them-Az TV belongs to the government. Nagorno-Karabakh conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan: For many centuries, Armenian groups had been living and doing activities freely in the countries ruled by Turkic-Azeri dynasties, such as Kara Koyunlu, Ak Koyunlu, Safavid and the khanates in accordance with Islamic Law as the part of Ahl-ul Kitab. In 1828, after occupation of Azerbaijan by Tsardom Russia, 50 000 Armenians were moved from Iran and 90 thousands from Turkey in Azeri lands-the khanates of Irevan (now Yerevan), Karabakh and Nakhchivan, as a plan of Tsardom of Russia that aimed to consolidate over these territories via Armenians. We see that Russian envoy A. Griboyedov noted Its necessary to resettle Armenians from the regions occupied by Russian Army that are Tabriz, Khoy, Salmas, Maragha to Nakhichevan, Yerevan and Karabakh in 1828. Writer N. Shavrov also wrote To date 1 million out of 1 million and 300 thousand Armenian people of Transcaucasia are not aboriginal inhabitants in 1911. In 1988, claiming to struggle for the sake of Christianity some chauvinist Armenian nationalists provoked Armenian people against Azerbaijan, relying on receiving support from Armenian lobbies living abroad. As a result, the war started and Armenian forces occupied Nagorno-Karabakh and other 7 neighboring districts and caused 1 million refugees by the help of other powers. UN Security Council (822, 853, 874, 884), the Organization of the Islamic Conferences (OIC) (12/21-P), The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (1416 (2005)), The European Parliament Error Hyperlink reference not valid.) adopted resolutions condemning Armenian occupation. But Armenia does not obey international law and continues the occupation. Azerbaijan is ready to guarantee Armenian population of Nagorno-Karabakh with the highest level autonomy within Azerbaijan and demands that invading forces have to leave Azerbaijani lands, Azerbaijani refugees of 1 million to be ensured to return to their native lands. Unfortunately, Armenia does not want peace and insists that Nagorno-Karabakh belongs to Armenians. The three-color national flag of Azerbaijan was accepted by the government of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan on November 9, 1918. The Supreme Council of the Azerbaijan Republic approved the three-color flag the national flag of the Azerbaijan Republic on February 5, 1991. The upper strip is of blue colour, the middle-of red, the lower is green. The blue strip designates the Turkic origin of the Azerbaijan Republic; the red colour-its intention to create a modern state and develop the democracy; the green strip-its belonging to the Islam civilization.