KARACHI - The road accidents are the part and parcel of our daily life in the city but its graph in the holy month of Ramazan is higher as compared to the rest of the year. The statistics shows that the holy month experienced the ratio of accidents more in the provincial capital, as the motorcycle fatalities increased by 36 per cent. According to the data prepared by the Road Traffic Injury Research Project (RTIRP) in partnership with JPMC, AKUH and NED University, Ramzan is the month when most of the accidents occur in the city. While two out of five road fatalities are of motorcyclists, data said. The data states that the motorbike riders are more prone to the accidents among the road users group, who account for 60 per cent of the total accidents and 37 per cent of the fatalities occurred on the roads. It is also important to note that over 50 per cent of these bike riders are less than 25 years of age. The statistics show that some 92 per cent of the bikers who faced the accident were not wearing helmets and they lost life due to head injuries. In terms of fatalities, 44 per cent of the cases are accidents between motorbikes and Heavy Transport Vehicle (HTVs). The causes of road accidents are found as over speeding 24.3 percent, hit while crossing the road 21.5 percent, overtaking 14.2 per cent, others 9.6 per cent, brake failure/sudden braking 6.8 per cent, bike slip due to scarf/oil/water 6.7 per cent, on turning 5.9 per cent, risky driving/racing 3.9 percent, wrong way 3.7 per cent and fall while alighting/ boarding 3.2 per cent. The fatality index in Pakistan in 1981 was a whopping 28 per cent compared to an average of 3 per cent in developed countries and since then, the percentage has only increased. It is pertinent to mention that Pakistan has one of the highest road accident rates in the world, about 18.7 accidents per 10 thousand registered vehicles, taking into consideration the number of vehicles plying on roads, however, the economic cost of road traffic accidents in Pakistan was estimated to be 100 billion rupees for the year 2006 by the National Road Safety Secretariat. Road Traffic Injury Research & Prevention Centre (RTIR & PC) said that total 85,702 cases have been recorded for the period Sep 08 to Mar 09, and 21 high accident locations have been identified. Total 32, 497 injury cases have been recorded in the year 2008 alone, while the overall number of facilities increased by 33 percent as compared to the data of 2007 & 08. National Road Safety Secretariat estimated that about two million accidents occurred in Pakistan in the year 2006 and over 40 thousand were of a serious nature. The number of road traffic accidents multiplied 17.5 times during a thirty year period (1995-96) while the number of vehicles multiplied by 15.8 times during same period in Pakistan. Helmets are highly effective in preventing brain injuries, which often require extensive treatment and may result in lifelong disability, as in the event of crash un-helmeted motorcyclists are the three times more likely than helmeted riders to suffer traumatic brain injuries, said an expert. He said that helmets are estimated to be effective in preventing 37 per cent fatal injuries to motorcyclists, adding that they also decrease the risk and severity of injuries by about 72 percent. The main contributing factors that are responsible for road accidents include road, vehicle and human factors. Vehicle conditions with inadequate maintenance also lead to accidents. The effective road safety management requires corporate sector, health, education, traffic systems, and engineering to come forward and initiate several measures like providing management support, through professional and trade associations, and expertise, ensuring fitness of drivers.