Rehan Khan

  • The Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali in 1826 sent a delegation of scholars to France in order to investigate the defining factors and determinants that led to the rise of European powers. Rifa’ah Rafi’i al-Tahtawi was also a member of the committee tasked by the government to carry out the ...

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  • The Grand National Assembly of modern Turkey abolished the sultanate in 1923 and the institution of the caliphate in 1924. Allama Muhammad Iqbal in his classic “The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam” endorsed the move and declared the Parliamentary form of government entirely ...

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  • Soon after the death of the Abbasid Caliph Harun-ar-Rasheed, his sons Amin and Mam’ un vied for the greater political authority. Backed up by the bureaucratic class, Amin wielded political clout and stamped his authority over a vast territory of the Abbasid Empire. Mam’ un was only the ...

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  • The global currents of reformism inspired the political leadership of Aurangzeb Alamghir to reorganize and reorder the Mughal Empire along modern lines in the latter part of the 17th century. The bureaucratic make-up was revamped, the economic policies were revisited, military was streamlined, ...

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  • Soon after the death of Aurangzeb Alamghir, the Mughal Empire descended into political decadence. Marred by internal fissures, the Safavid Empire ceased to exist by the end of 1722. The Ottoman Empire after the showdown of 1682 in Vienna, continued to lose territorial size and faced an endless ...

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