US administration had put Pakistan on `notice’ that if it did not `do more’, unilateral action may follow in areas of divergence (self-conceited targets).US CENTCOM commander is however of the view that such an action was nowhere in the offing.

US attitude reflects it is wedded to Classical Theory of Conflict Management. This discarded theory postulates that conflict is caused by a few bête noire (black sheep). When they are eliminated, it is hunky dory with peace. But, Modern Theory of Conflict Management says ` conflict cannot be eliminated. The minimal point of conflict is its optimal point’. If Eisenhower had not started post-World-War II Marshall Plan, Europe would have braced up for yet another war . Forced collapse of Taliban government in Afghanistan led to their de facto rule. Pakistan, USA’s non-NATO ally, turned rueful at US `do more’ demands. Wars in Iraq, Syria and Libya killed countless civilians. Nazis were tried at Nuremberg for `crimes against peace’ and `humanity’. But, Dresden fire-bombing, A-bombing of Japan, and Soviet brutality in Germany remained untried.

A war may stem from circumstances beyond human control, uncertainty and accident, impersonal forces impinging on nation states (John Locke), human perversity (Thomas Hobbes), society or environmental factors. USA should stop threatening countries with unilateral action. Never forget, pursuing war (like Mussolini) as an instrument of state policy violates international law and humanity.

MOHAMMAD ASAD MALICK,

Rawalpindi, January 15.