Even in this age of globalisation when established social structures and cultural values are cracking up, the Pashtuns steadfastly hold on to Pashtu-nwali - their centuries old code of socio-cultural ethics. In addition, they are widely recognised for their courage and hospitality. Stories of their heroic resistance against enemies abound in the books of history and literature. That is why a bulk of scholarly enquiries has focused on these aspects of their lives. However, one feature that has largely remained unexplored about them is their mobility. Being men from mountains, primarily concentrated in Afghanistan and Pakistans north-western areas, the harsh geographical conditions compelled them to eke out a living in other parts of the world. What have been the patterns of their movements in the last two centuries, has been the focus of Robert Nichols study. Nichols has taught history at the universities of Yale and Pennsylvania and specialises in the regional histories of the Pas-htun communities. The lure of better opportunities spurred them to move down the highlands with the incursions of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi in the subcontinent offering their services as soldiers for hire, horse traders, money-lenders and potential landlords in search of an opportunity. Raw in disposition and rustic in demeanour when compared with the ruling subcontinental elite, they took some time to attain high positions in the army or the administration. In the mid-thirteenth century, they were employed in substantial numbers by Sultan Balban to expand his empire and defend it against the Mongol raids. Two centuries down, they were actually ruling Delhi in the form of the Lodhi dynasty (1451-1526). Now, they were recognised as the aristocracy shouldering responsibilities as governors, courtiers, military commanders and revenue collectors. The Mughal emperors continued to integrate Pathans in their empire building and its founder Babur took a Yusufzai Pashtun wife to keep an effective political network up to Kabul. While some Pashtuns dared to rebel against their Mughal patrons such as Khan-i-Jehan Lodhi against Emperor Jehangir but in general they remained aligned with the Mughal authority. For example, in Aurangzebs force that defeated Dara Shikoh, 23 mansabdars of the highest rank were Pashtuns. By the time of the 1857 war, a significant number of Pakhtuns had concentrated in the Rohail Khand area, where Khan Bahadur Khan, the grandson of the legendary Hafiz Rehmat Khan was proclaimed the Nawab Nazim of Rohail Khand. Khan Bahadur not only led the revolt against the British in Bareli, but also appealed for Hindu-Muslim unity against a common enemy declaring that the slaughter of cattle would be abolished in his territories after the war. His battle cry was duly supported by the calls of jihad from Molvi Liaquat Ali, the Imam of Allahabad and Birjees Kudar, the Wali of Oudh. However, some Pashtuns such as Buland Khan, a Rohilla cavalry commander exhibited exemplary loyalty and good service to the British for which they were generously rewarded. Such blend of bravery and loyalty convinced the British to declare the Pashtuns as a key 'martial race and encouraged their enrolment in the army after 1857. While those Pathans who had rebelled against them were transported to the confinement settlements such as Penang and Malaca in general and to the prison colony of Andaman Island in particular. During World War I, seven divisions of Indian army were sent overseas that included the Pakhtuns. When they confronted the paradox to either obey the military orders or to act upon their religious conscience, many followed the voice of conscience by rebelling against the military authority. By one account, three Pathan companies were disaffected because they were unwilling to advance against the holy place of Salman Pak, housing the tomb of a devoted companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) at Ctesiphon. Employment, first, in the British East India Company and later the British Indian army opened new vistas for Pashtun movement to different parts of the world. Along with members of other Indian communities, the Pakhtuns also travelled to and settled in Caribbean and Africa to name a few destinations. Some worked as indentured labour in the European colonies producing sugar and spices due to the labour shortages consequent to the abolition of slavery in Europe while others went to Cairo, Alexandria, the Gulf and Australia in the service of the imperial empire. They played an important role in the British exploration of Australia in the later half of the 19th century. It was the Pathans from Peshawar, Quetta, Kabul and Karachi who built and maintained long distance transportation and communication networks between northern and southern Australia. Again, it was they who provided the camels and worked as the drivers of the camel trains that carried freight and mail throughout the Australian interior. The archival record testifies that 24 camels in 1860, 353 in 1887, 483 in 1892 and 400 in 1893 were shipped to different ports of Australia by the Pashtuns from the subcontinent. Some left their families back home while others married to 'white or 'aboriginal Australian women and acquired a secular outlook by adopting Western names and mores. Historical record indicate that at least one woman was murdered in Australia in the name of Pashtunwali revenge. Moreover, being a 'martial race, the British preferred to hire their services as policemen to discipline the colonial outposts of Malaya, Hong Kong, Singapore and other locations in Southeast Asia. In the 1890s, their sweat and blood contributed in the building of the East African railroad from Mombasa to Uganda. The later generations of Pathans continued the tradition of hard work set by their dynamic ancestors. In the 1970s and 80s their major movement was towards the Gulf in the wake of the oil bonanza. By 1981, over a half million Pakhtuns from NWFP (now Khyber-Pakhtu-nkhwa) had moved to the Middle East primarily from the districts of Swat, Kohat, Mardan and Peshawar. Largely semi-literate and semi-skilled, they were employed in the blue-collar occupations. In spite of the exploitative working conditions and harsh living conditions in the Arabian deserts they outclassed the competitors from other countries and ethnic groups. No wonder, they were the most sought after labour particularly in construction and transport sectors. Some of the stories of these workers are quite harrowing but heroic. For example, several Pathans drove taxis 18 hours a day, for seven days per week over a period of months without a break. Overall, the Pashtuns have proved to be a resilient and dynamic community, eager to take on daunting challenges. Email qizilbash2000@yahoo.com