“Force has no place where there is need of skill.”

–Herodotus

Antiquity was the period of philosophers and fabled warriors. In this period, the Mediterranean world was dominated by two entirely contrary cultures; Greeks and Persians.

Persia was colossal and extremely wealthy, governed by lords under the absolute authority of a king who ruled over different societies but respects them equally. On the other hand, were the Greeks who considered the Persians as barbarous. The Greeks were divided into independent city-states; Thebes, Athens, Thermopylae, Salamis, and Sparta. These city-states were in a constant conflict with one and others. In these cities, great philosophers debated on the best forms of government.

Persia had twice invaded the Greek lands but the Greeks united to fight against the numerically superior army and won because of their strategy called ‘hammer and anvil’ tactic where phalanxes, which were tight groups with long spears, creating a wall of shields while a heavy cavalry attacked from the rear. Centuries later, the same tactic brought victory to the Zulus against the British invasion in South Africa.

A Macedonian, King Philip ended the conflicts among the Greeks, provided a central authority and planned to invade Persia but before he could invade Persia, one of his royal guards assassinated him in front of his young son, Alexander. The Greek cities revolted after Philip’s murder as they underestimated Philip’s son, who actually excelled in the art of war.