Masud Ahmad Khan

  • The creation of Pakistan was based on the two-nation theory. Hindus and Muslims were not able to live together, therefore Jinnah’s vision was that Muslims should have an independent state. Pakistan is a nation which consists of different ethnicities, distinctive cultures, customs, traditions ...

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  • The white in the Pakistani flag represents minorities and is symbolic of the idea that non-Muslims are to be treated as equal citizens of the country. The Hindu population of Pakistan has not changed since 1951, when it accounted for 1.5 to 2 percent. This is contrary to the claims of forced ...

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  • The partition of the sub-continent left the fate of 568 princely states undecided by giving the right to decide which of the two countries they would join to their rulers. Being an overwhelmingly Muslim majority state, and because of the geographical location, Jammu and Kashmir should have joined ...

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  • The aim of writing this article is to rebut Indians, Pakistani pseudo-intellectuals and liberals who often spew venom against the armed forces of Pakistan. Some people in Pakistan promote false narratives as part of a sustained campaign against armed forces while referring to wars with India. Let ...

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  • The people of Gilgit-Baltistan opposed the accession of Kashmir to India and the appointment of Brigadier Ghansara Singh as the Governor of Gilgit. On October 31, 1947, the residence of the governor was surrendered by Gilgit Scouts and by November 1, he had surrendered himself to them. On the same ...

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  • India is yet to reconcile and accept the existence of Pakistan and is always busy in plotting conspiracies to destabilise Pakistan. During the 1971 war, India armed, trained and funded Mukhti Bahni and attacked East Pakistan from multiple directions. Because of its location 1000 miles away, it was ...

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  • A nation is a group of people bound together by language, culture, common heritage and usually recognised as a political entity. Nation building means measures taken to streamline a nation institutionally and economically. Since creation, Pakistan Army has fought three wars followed by the Kargil ...

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  • In the 1950s, Indians were obsessed with the slogan “Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai”. However, it did not last since the 1962 war between India and China broke out. During the war, all of Arunachal Pradesh (South Tibet) was occupied by the Chinese army and they came up to Tezpur in Assam. ...

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  • On November 1, 1947 the Dogra governor of Gilgit agency surrendered to Gilgit Scouts and the Pakistan flag was raised. After the liberation, Major Aslam Khan (later brigadier) was posted to Gilgit to take over command of the forces available in the region. He raised the strength of the combined ...

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  • India is second most populous and the seventh largest country in the world. The oldest racial group is the adivasis, the aboriginals of India who live in areas extending from Assam in northeast to Kanyakumari in the south. The next large ethnic group is Dravidians in the south and Aryans in the ...

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  • Some 73 years of independence have passed but Pakistan is still facing an acute water crisis. Water is becoming an existential issue for Pakistan’s future which is further aggravated by India’s construction of 40 dams along river Jhelum and Chenab. Agriculture is the backbone of our ...

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  • Carl Von Clausewitz, a 19th century German theorist, defined the Centre of Gravity (COG) in his book, Vom Kriege, as “the representation of the source of an opponent’s power and strength and, therefore, the point against which all our energies should be directed”. In the United ...

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  • The Siachen Glacier was discovered in 1907 and is the world’s largest glacier outside of the polar regions. It is 72 kilometres long and 3 kilometres wide. The glacier emanates near the Indra Koli Pass, on the Pak China border, 37 nautical miles southeast of K2. Then, it runs along the ...

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  • On August 5, 2019, India revoked the special status of Indian Illegally Occupied Jammu and Kashmir (IIOJK) by abrogating Article 370 and 35A of the Indian constitution. This was followed by the issuing of a new political map where Azad Kashmir was shown as part of IIOJK while Gilgit-Baltistan was ...

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  • The Gilgit Route (Silk route) was an important link between the sub-continent and Tarim Basin in China. Mintaka, Kilk, Darkot and Baroghil passes were the entry points to ancient India. The route from Gilgit to Kashgar was also called the Silk Route. It originated from Gilgit, along river Hunza, ...

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  • The people of Gilgit-Baltistan have close religious, ethnic and linguistic ties with the people of Drass and Kargil. Historically, Ladakh was under wazir wazarat who was also responsible for Baltistan. Ladakh had three tehsils, Skardu, Kargil and Ladakh. During the liberation war of ...

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  • The Sino-Indian border is divided into three sectors. The western sector is known as Aksai Chin sector, the central sector where China shares a border with Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh and the eastern sector comprises the states of Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim—the largest disputed area ...

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  • Infighting for power amongst local rulers of Gilgit resulted in an ousted Raja going to Kashmir to seek assistance from the Sikhs in 1842. An army of one thousand was sent to Gilgi—an ac which reshaped history by introducing a new outside force, Sikhs, in the region. On March 16, 1849, ...

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  • After consolidating gains at Galwan Valley, Hot Springs, Pangong lake and Naku La, Chinese build-up has been seen in the Depsang Plains in the sub-sector north and Demchok in the south. The Chinese objective is to stretch the Indian army to tire them out by opening new sectors. First, let us have a ...

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  • The Sino-Indian border is divided into three sectors. The western sector is Askai Chin, the central sector is where China shares a border with Indian states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh and eastern sector is from Sikkim to Arunachal Pradesh. Let us have a look at Chinese border issues with ...

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  • Ladakh was a British frontier post on the land route to China through the Karakoram Pass. Ladakh was under Wazir Wazarat, who also responsible for Baltistan and had three tehsils, namely Skardu, Kargil and Ladakh. In winters Wazir Wazarat used to reside in Skardu, Baltistan. Historically, Skardu ...

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  • Nepal is landlocked; borders with China in the north and India in the South, East, West while Bangladesh is located 27 kilometres of South-Eastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by Sikkim. The India-Nepal border is 1690 kilometres long, which was defined after the Sugauli treaty of 1815 ...

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  • Historically, Ladakh was part of Tibet and was ruled by Tibetan kings and the Chinese. The Mons and Indo-Aryan were the rulers of western Ladakh and Zanskar in the pre-Buddhist period. According to R C Arora, the Dards of Gilgit and Astor also ruled the area which is evident from sculptures and ...

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  • According to Khushwant Singh, Arab traders brought Islam to India to the west coast from the mouth of Indus to Kanyakumari in the south. The year 712 is considered a landmark in the history of Islam, when Muhammad Bin Qasim entered Makran, conquered Debal (near Karachi). He conquered whole Sindh ...

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  • It was in 1842 when for the first time a Sikh force entered Gilgit on the request of an ousted Raja which changed/reshaped the history of Gilgit. The ruler of Yasin Gohar Aman attacked the Sikh force and destroyed them. A Dogra reinforcement under General Bhoop Singh was again crushed by Gohar Aman ...

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  • The length of Pakistan’s border with India is 3,133 kilometers which includes 700 kilometers Line of Control (LoC) 193 kilometers of Working Boundary (WB) and 2,240 kilometers of International Border (IB). The first Kashmir war was fought between Pakistan and India from October 1947 to ...

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  • During the ninth and tenth centuries, the nomadic Turkic Oghuz tribes formed a state in the Aral Sea region in the areas of north Caspian. They gradually moved to central Asia from their original homeland in the Altai mountains in the western Mongolia. They then migrated southward in search of ...

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  • The region of Gilgit Baltistan in ancient times was divided into small states composed of warlike tribes and dominant races. The people of the region were widely known for their courage, natural ability to fight, bravery and there are stories of their heroic resistance against foreign invaders. The ...

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  • It was India who took the Kashmir dispute to UN under Chapter VI (Pacific Settlement of Disputes) rather than Chapter VII which deals with aggression. The Kashmir dispute came on the UN Agenda in 1948 and has been recognised to be one of the most intractable and dangerous political disputes facing ...

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  • In case of the Subcontinent, the first prominent Turk was Mahmud of Ghazni son of Sabuktagin, a former Mamluk worrier slave. When the Samanid dynasty based in Bukhara began to decline, Sabuktagin seized control of Ghazni in 977. During Mahmud’s reign, his empire stretched from the Oxus to the ...

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